Abstract

Here we report a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure (2D APS) discovered in the ligament of bivalve Lutraria maximum, based on scanning electron microscopy and fiber optic spectrometry combined with the image processing technology and pair correlation function analysis. This structure contains 70% in volume of parallel aragonite fibers embedded in a protein matrix. These fibers, in cross section, are hexagonal to polygonal with diameters of 194nm and are packed in short-range order with a nearest-neighbor distance of 202nm. Moreover, experimentally measured reflectance spectrum and theoretical predictions prove that this photonic structure gives rise to a golden structural color with the peak wavelength at about 650nm. We expect this unraveled structure may inspire the design and synthesis of a novel 2D APS.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010

J. W. Galusha, M. R. Jorgensen, and M. H. Bartl, “Diamond-structured titania photonic-bandgap crystals from biological templates,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 107–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. R. Parker, “Natural photonics for industrial inspiration,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 367(1894), 1759–1782 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, B. Q. Dong, X. H. Liu, Y. M. Zheng, and J. Zi, “Structural color change in longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16183–16191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Lee and G. S. Smith, “Detailed electromagnetic simulation for the structural color of butterfly wings,” Appl. Opt. 48(21), 4177–4190 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, S. Kinoshita, D. Cai, and J. B. Cole, “Investigation of structural colors in Morpho butterflies using the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method: Effects of alternately stacked shelves and ridge density,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(5), 051924 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Zhang and H. X. Li, “Nanomorphologies of aragonitic fibers and optical reflections of bivalve ligaments,” J. Mineral. Petrol. 28(3), 9–13 (2008) (in Chinese).

2007

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Zhang, “Photonic crystal type structure in bivalve ligament of Pinctada maxima,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 52(8), 1136–1138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. D. Ambrosis, P. Mascheretti, and P. Tedesco, “Using the idea of correlation to understand liquid behaviour,” Phys. Educ. 41(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Baddeley and R. Turner, “Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns,” J. Stat. Softw. 12, 1–42 (2005).

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(12), 2157–2172 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of avian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(14), 2409–2429 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “A Fourier tool for the analysis of coherent light scattering by bio-optical nanostructures,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 591–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cook, P. L. Timms, and C. Göltner-Spickermann, “Exact replication of biological structures by chemical vapor deposition of silica,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(5), 557–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ubukata, “A theoretical morphologic analysis of bivalve ligaments,” Paleobiology 29(3), 369–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Meek, S. Dennis, and S. Khan, “Changes in the refractive index of the stroma and its extrafibrillar matrix when the cornea swells,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2205–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. Jin, X. Meng, B. Cheng, Z. Li, and D. Zhang, “Photonic gap in amorphous photonic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. A. Kahler, R. L. Sass, and F. M. Fisher, “The fine structure and crystallography of the ligament of Spisula solidissima (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mactridae),” J. Comp. Physiol. 109, 209–220 (1976).

1969

G. Bevelander and H. Nakahara, “An electron microscope study of the formation of the ligament of Mytilus edulis and Pinctada radiate,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 4(1), 101–112 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1930

O. B. Bøggild, “The shell structure of the mollusks,” K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. 9(2), 233–326 (1930).

Ambrosis, A. D.

A. D. Ambrosis, P. Mascheretti, and P. Tedesco, “Using the idea of correlation to understand liquid behaviour,” Phys. Educ. 41(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baddeley, A.

A. Baddeley and R. Turner, “Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns,” J. Stat. Softw. 12, 1–42 (2005).

Bartl, M. H.

J. W. Galusha, M. R. Jorgensen, and M. H. Bartl, “Diamond-structured titania photonic-bandgap crystals from biological templates,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 107–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevelander, G.

G. Bevelander and H. Nakahara, “An electron microscope study of the formation of the ligament of Mytilus edulis and Pinctada radiate,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 4(1), 101–112 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biró, L. P.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Biró and J. P. Vigneron, “Photonic nanoarchitectures in butterflies and beetles: valuable sources for bioinspiration,” Laser Photon. Rev. (to be published).

Bøggild, O. B.

O. B. Bøggild, “The shell structure of the mollusks,” K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. 9(2), 233–326 (1930).

Cai, D.

D. Zhu, S. Kinoshita, D. Cai, and J. B. Cole, “Investigation of structural colors in Morpho butterflies using the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method: Effects of alternately stacked shelves and ridge density,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(5), 051924 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B.

C. Jin, X. Meng, B. Cheng, Z. Li, and D. Zhang, “Photonic gap in amorphous photonic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. B.

D. Zhu, S. Kinoshita, D. Cai, and J. B. Cole, “Investigation of structural colors in Morpho butterflies using the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method: Effects of alternately stacked shelves and ridge density,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(5), 051924 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

G. Cook, P. L. Timms, and C. Göltner-Spickermann, “Exact replication of biological structures by chemical vapor deposition of silica,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(5), 557–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cournoyer, J. R.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, S.

K. M. Meek, S. Dennis, and S. Khan, “Changes in the refractive index of the stroma and its extrafibrillar matrix when the cornea swells,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2205–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deparis, O.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, B. Q.

Dovidenko, K.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, J.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertz, D.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, F. M.

G. A. Kahler, R. L. Sass, and F. M. Fisher, “The fine structure and crystallography of the ligament of Spisula solidissima (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mactridae),” J. Comp. Physiol. 109, 209–220 (1976).

Froufe, L.

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, R.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galusha, J. W.

J. W. Galusha, M. R. Jorgensen, and M. H. Bartl, “Diamond-structured titania photonic-bandgap crystals from biological templates,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 107–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghiradella, H.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Göltner-Spickermann, C.

G. Cook, P. L. Timms, and C. Göltner-Spickermann, “Exact replication of biological structures by chemical vapor deposition of silica,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(5), 557–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, C.

C. Jin, X. Meng, B. Cheng, Z. Li, and D. Zhang, “Photonic gap in amorphous photonic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, M. R.

J. W. Galusha, M. R. Jorgensen, and M. H. Bartl, “Diamond-structured titania photonic-bandgap crystals from biological templates,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 107–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahler, G. A.

G. A. Kahler, R. L. Sass, and F. M. Fisher, “The fine structure and crystallography of the ligament of Spisula solidissima (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mactridae),” J. Comp. Physiol. 109, 209–220 (1976).

Khan, S.

K. M. Meek, S. Dennis, and S. Khan, “Changes in the refractive index of the stroma and its extrafibrillar matrix when the cornea swells,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2205–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, S.

D. Zhu, S. Kinoshita, D. Cai, and J. B. Cole, “Investigation of structural colors in Morpho butterflies using the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method: Effects of alternately stacked shelves and ridge density,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(5), 051924 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. T.

Li, H. X.

G. S. Zhang and H. X. Li, “Nanomorphologies of aragonitic fibers and optical reflections of bivalve ligaments,” J. Mineral. Petrol. 28(3), 9–13 (2008) (in Chinese).

Li, Y.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

C. Jin, X. Meng, B. Cheng, Z. Li, and D. Zhang, “Photonic gap in amorphous photonic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. H.

Losic, D.

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

Lousse, V.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mascheretti, P.

A. D. Ambrosis, P. Mascheretti, and P. Tedesco, “Using the idea of correlation to understand liquid behaviour,” Phys. Educ. 41(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meek, K. M.

K. M. Meek, S. Dennis, and S. Khan, “Changes in the refractive index of the stroma and its extrafibrillar matrix when the cornea swells,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2205–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, X.

C. Jin, X. Meng, B. Cheng, Z. Li, and D. Zhang, “Photonic gap in amorphous photonic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, J.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, H.

G. Bevelander and H. Nakahara, “An electron microscope study of the formation of the ligament of Mytilus edulis and Pinctada radiate,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 4(1), 101–112 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, E.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A. R.

A. R. Parker, “Natural photonics for industrial inspiration,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 367(1894), 1759–1782 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasteels, J. M.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potyrailo, R. A.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pring, A.

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

Prum, R. O.

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(12), 2157–2172 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “A Fourier tool for the analysis of coherent light scattering by bio-optical nanostructures,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 591–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of avian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(14), 2409–2429 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rassart, M.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reufer, M.

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rojas, L. F.

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saenz, J. J.

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sass, R. L.

G. A. Kahler, R. L. Sass, and F. M. Fisher, “The fine structure and crystallography of the ligament of Spisula solidissima (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mactridae),” J. Comp. Physiol. 109, 209–220 (1976).

Scheffold, F.

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schurtenberger, P.

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seldrum, T.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Self, P.

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

Shapter, J.

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

Smith, G. S.

Snow, M. R.

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

Stradner, A.

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tedesco, P.

A. D. Ambrosis, P. Mascheretti, and P. Tedesco, “Using the idea of correlation to understand liquid behaviour,” Phys. Educ. 41(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Timms, P. L.

G. Cook, P. L. Timms, and C. Göltner-Spickermann, “Exact replication of biological structures by chemical vapor deposition of silica,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(5), 557–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, R. H.

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(12), 2157–2172 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “A Fourier tool for the analysis of coherent light scattering by bio-optical nanostructures,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 591–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of avian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(14), 2409–2429 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, R.

A. Baddeley and R. Turner, “Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns,” J. Stat. Softw. 12, 1–42 (2005).

Ubukata, T.

T. Ubukata, “A theoretical morphologic analysis of bivalve ligaments,” Paleobiology 29(3), 369–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vértesy, Z.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vertiatchikh, A.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J. P.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Biró and J. P. Vigneron, “Photonic nanoarchitectures in butterflies and beetles: valuable sources for bioinspiration,” Laser Photon. Rev. (to be published).

Vukusic, P.

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, V.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windsor, D. M.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshioka, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

C. Jin, X. Meng, B. Cheng, Z. Li, and D. Zhang, “Photonic gap in amorphous photonic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. S.

G. S. Zhang and H. X. Li, “Nanomorphologies of aragonitic fibers and optical reflections of bivalve ligaments,” J. Mineral. Petrol. 28(3), 9–13 (2008) (in Chinese).

G. S. Zhang, “Photonic crystal type structure in bivalve ligament of Pinctada maxima,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 52(8), 1136–1138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. M.

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, S. Kinoshita, D. Cai, and J. B. Cole, “Investigation of structural colors in Morpho butterflies using the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method: Effects of alternately stacked shelves and ridge density,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(5), 051924 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zi, J.

F. Liu, B. Q. Dong, X. H. Liu, Y. M. Zheng, and J. Zi, “Structural color change in longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16183–16191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

J. W. Galusha, M. R. Jorgensen, and M. H. Bartl, “Diamond-structured titania photonic-bandgap crystals from biological templates,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 107–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amer. Miner.

M. R. Snow, M. R. Snow, A. Pring, P. Self, D. Losic, and J. Shapter, “The origin of the color of pearls in iridescence from nano-composite structures of the nacre,” Amer. Miner. 89, 1353–1358 (2004).

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

G. Cook, P. L. Timms, and C. Göltner-Spickermann, “Exact replication of biological structures by chemical vapor deposition of silica,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(5), 557–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

K. M. Meek, S. Dennis, and S. Khan, “Changes in the refractive index of the stroma and its extrafibrillar matrix when the cornea swells,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2205–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calcif. Tissue Res.

G. Bevelander and H. Nakahara, “An electron microscope study of the formation of the ligament of Mytilus edulis and Pinctada radiate,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 4(1), 101–112 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. Sci. Bull.

G. S. Zhang, “Photonic crystal type structure in bivalve ligament of Pinctada maxima,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 52(8), 1136–1138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Integr. Comp. Biol.

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “A Fourier tool for the analysis of coherent light scattering by bio-optical nanostructures,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43(4), 591–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Physiol.

G. A. Kahler, R. L. Sass, and F. M. Fisher, “The fine structure and crystallography of the ligament of Spisula solidissima (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mactridae),” J. Comp. Physiol. 109, 209–220 (1976).

J. Exp. Biol.

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(12), 2157–2172 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Prum and R. H. Torres, “Structural colouration of avian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(14), 2409–2429 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mineral. Petrol.

G. S. Zhang and H. X. Li, “Nanomorphologies of aragonitic fibers and optical reflections of bivalve ligaments,” J. Mineral. Petrol. 28(3), 9–13 (2008) (in Chinese).

J. Stat. Softw.

A. Baddeley and R. Turner, “Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns,” J. Stat. Softw. 12, 1–42 (2005).

K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr.

O. B. Bøggild, “The shell structure of the mollusks,” K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. 9(2), 233–326 (1930).

Laser Photon. Rev.

L. P. Biró and J. P. Vigneron, “Photonic nanoarchitectures in butterflies and beetles: valuable sources for bioinspiration,” Laser Photon. Rev. (to be published).

Nat. Photonics

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Paleobiology

T. Ubukata, “A theoretical morphologic analysis of bivalve ligaments,” Paleobiology 29(3), 369–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.

A. R. Parker, “Natural photonics for industrial inspiration,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 367(1894), 1759–1782 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Educ.

A. D. Ambrosis, P. Mascheretti, and P. Tedesco, “Using the idea of correlation to understand liquid behaviour,” Phys. Educ. 41(1), 63–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

C. Jin, X. Meng, B. Cheng, Z. Li, and D. Zhang, “Photonic gap in amorphous photonic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

D. Zhu, S. Kinoshita, D. Cai, and J. B. Cole, “Investigation of structural colors in Morpho butterflies using the nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method: Effects of alternately stacked shelves and ridge density,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 80(5), 051924 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

F. Scheffold, L. F. Rojas, M. Reufer, P. Schurtenberger, A. Stradner, L. Froufe, and J. J. Saenz, “Photonic properties of strongly correlated colloidal liquids,” Proc. SPIE 5840, 456–463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. L. Welch, “Photonic crystals in biology,” In Structural Colours in Biological Systems, S. Kinoshita and S.Yoshioka, ed. (Osaka University, Osaka, 2005), pp. 53–71.

P. H. Raven, and G. B. Johnson, Biology, 6th edition (McGraw Hill, New York, 2002), pp. 905.
[PubMed]

T. R. Waller, “The evolution of ligament systems in the Bivalvia,” in The Bivalvia, B. Morton, ed. (Hong Kong University, Hong Kong, 1990). pp. 49–71.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical photos of one half of the ligament of L. maxima. (a) Outer view. (b) Inner view. OS, VS, and IS represent the outer, ventral, and inner surface, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic setup for color observation. A movable 50W halogen light source is oblique to the sample (stage) plane with an incident angle of θ = 30-60°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the ligament in longitudinal section. (a) Nearly full view. (b), (c), and (d) Detail of boxed areas 1, 2 and 3 in (a), respectively. OS, VS, and IS: the same meaning as in Fig. 1; α: the angle between the fiber axis and VS; dark double arrows: fiber axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upper: SEM images of the ligament in cross section. (a) Original. (b) Binary image after image processing. Lower: (c) Histogram showing the distribution of fiber diameters. (d) Pair correlation function of fiber’s centroids.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical photos of fractured sections of the ligament. (a) Cross-section. (b) Longitudinal section with β = 90°. (c) The same sample in (b) with β = 25°. White arrows: the projection of incident beams on the sample plane; black arrows: fiber axis; β: the acute angle between the white arrow and fiber axis; OS: outer surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical measured (a) and Fourier-predicted (b) reflectance spectra of the ligament in longitudinal section under normal incidence.

Equations (1)

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n avg = n a f a + n p ( 1 f a )

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