Abstract

Optical bistability at nanoscale is a promising way to realize optical switching, a key component of integrated nanophotonic devices. In this work we present an analytical model for optical bistability in a metal nano-antenna involving Kerr nonlinear medium based on detailed analysis of the correlation between the incident and extinction light intensity under surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The model allows one to construct a clear picture on how the threshold, contrast, and other characteristics of optical bistability are influenced by the nonlinear coefficient, incident light intensity, local field enhancement factor, SPR peak width, and other physical parameters of the nano-antenna. It shows that the key towards low threshold power and high contrast optical bistability in the nanosystem is to reduce the SPR peak width. This can be achieved by reducing the absorption of metal materials or introducing gain media into nanosystems.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Li and Y. N. Xia, “Metal nanoparticles with gain toward single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 243–249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, F. Qin, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “Ultrafast and low-power photonic crystal all-optical switching with resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. N. Xia, “Quantitative analysis of dipole and quadrupole excitation in the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(51), 20233–20240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Liaw, “Analysis of a bowtie nanoantenna for the enhancement of spontaneous emission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1441–1447 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Wang, G. X. Li, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, and S. N. Zhu, “Optical bistability and multistability in one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Min, P. Wang, C. C. Chen, Y. Deng, Y. H. Lu, H. Ming, T. Y. Ning, Y. L. Zhou, and G. Z. Yang, “All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 869–871 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shen and G. P. Wang, “Optical bistability in metal gap waveguide nanocavities,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8421–8426 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2003

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2739–2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, M. Soljacić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2506–2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Nihei and A. Okamoto, “Photonic crystal systems for high-speed optical memory device on an atomic scale,” Proc. SPIE 4416, 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in type II second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

Abb, M.

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahrach, H. I. E.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, A. V.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in type II second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Baudrion, A.-L.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berthelot, J.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bouhelier, A.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheah, K. W.

F. Y. Wang, G. X. Li, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, and S. N. Zhu, “Optical bistability and multistability in one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

Colas-des-Francs, G.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Dereux, A.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dijkhuis, J. I.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Draine, B. T.

Dumon, P.

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, M. Soljacić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2506–2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2739–2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Finot, E.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flatau, P. J.

Giannini, V.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golubev, V. G.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez Rivas, J.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in type II second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kerst, R.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostcheev, S.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurdyukov, D. A.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Large, N.

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G. X.

F. Y. Wang, G. X. Li, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, and S. N. Zhu, “Optical bistability and multistability in one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li and Y. N. Xia, “Metal nanoparticles with gain toward single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 243–249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, F. Qin, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “Ultrafast and low-power photonic crystal all-optical switching with resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. N. Xia, “Quantitative analysis of dipole and quadrupole excitation in the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(51), 20233–20240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, J. W.

J. W. Liaw, “Analysis of a bowtie nanoantenna for the enhancement of spontaneous emission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1441–1447 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, F. Qin, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “Ultrafast and low-power photonic crystal all-optical switching with resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. N. Xia, “Quantitative analysis of dipole and quadrupole excitation in the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(51), 20233–20240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. H.

Margueritat, J.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazurenko, D. A.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, C. J.

Ming, H.

Morthier, G.

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muskens, O. L.

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nihei, H.

H. Nihei and A. Okamoto, “Photonic crystal systems for high-speed optical memory device on an atomic scale,” Proc. SPIE 4416, 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ning, T. Y.

Okamoto, A.

H. Nihei and A. Okamoto, “Photonic crystal systems for high-speed optical memory device on an atomic scale,” Proc. SPIE 4416, 470–473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pevtsov, A. B.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plain, J.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priem, G.

Qin, F.

Y. Liu, F. Qin, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “Ultrafast and low-power photonic crystal all-optical switching with resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sel’kin, A. V.

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

Soljacic, M.

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2739–2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, M. Soljacić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2506–2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, H. L.

F. Y. Wang, G. X. Li, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, and S. N. Zhu, “Optical bistability and multistability in one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vanstryland, E. W.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in type II second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. Y.

F. Y. Wang, G. X. Li, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, and S. N. Zhu, “Optical bistability and multistability in one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. P.

Wang, P.

Wang, Z.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in type II second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurtz, G. A.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y. N.

Z. Y. Li and Y. N. Xia, “Metal nanoparticles with gain toward single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 243–249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. N. Xia, “Quantitative analysis of dipole and quadrupole excitation in the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(51), 20233–20240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2739–2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, M. Soljacić, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2506–2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, F.

Y. Liu, F. Qin, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “Ultrafast and low-power photonic crystal all-optical switching with resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. N. Xia, “Quantitative analysis of dipole and quadrupole excitation in the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(51), 20233–20240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. L.

Zhu, S. N.

F. Y. Wang, G. X. Li, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, and S. N. Zhu, “Optical bistability and multistability in one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in type II second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2120–2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Wang, G. X. Li, H. L. Tam, K. W. Cheah, and S. N. Zhu, “Optical bistability and multistability in one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2739–2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. W. Liaw, “Analysis of a bowtie nanoantenna for the enhancement of spontaneous emission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1441–1447 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Liu, F. Qin, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “Ultrafast and low-power photonic crystal all-optical switching with resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. C

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. N. Xia, “Quantitative analysis of dipole and quadrupole excitation in the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(51), 20233–20240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, C. Huang, J. Margueritat, G. Colas-des-Francs, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, S. Kostcheev, H. I. E. Ahrach, A.-L. Baudrion, J. Plain, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Tuning of an optical dimer nanoantenna by electrically controlling its load impedance,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3914–3921 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Li and Y. N. Xia, “Metal nanoparticles with gain toward single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 243–249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Large, M. Abb, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “Photoconductively loaded plasmonic nanoantenna as building block for ultracompact optical switches,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1741–1746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Mazurenko, R. Kerst, J. I. Dijkhuis, A. V. Akimov, V. G. Golubev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. B. Pevtsov, and A. V. Sel’kin, “Ultrafast optical switching in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of the nonlinear nano-antenna system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction spectrum of nano-antenna. Black circles are the results simulated with DDA method, and the red line is the fit curve with Lorentz function. Excellent agreement is obtained.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric field distributions (in unit of I 0 ) with different wavelengths of λ = 663.8 nm: (a) yz-plane and (b) xy-plane. (c) and (d) are the field enhancement factor I / I 0 along x and y axes (the black lines). The fields for the wavelength of λ = 700 nm are also plotted (the red lines). The electric field distribution in the gap region shows high uniformity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the field enhancement factor I / I 0 and the extinction cross section C e x t . The black dots are for the wavelength at the left side of the resonant peak, while the red dots for the right side. The fit curve by a linear function is denoted as blue line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Shift of extinction spectra with the change of refractive index in the gap region. (b) The relationship between the SPR peak wavelength and the corresponding refractive index in the gap region. The black dots are the simulated results with DDA method, and the red line is the fitted curve. Very good linear relationship is found.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the extinction power and the incident intensity at different wavelengths. The Wext is peak extinction power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Optical bistability curves at different wavelengths with a gain coefficient of k = 0.25 for the material in the gap. (b) The dependence of SPR peak width on the gain coefficient.

Equations (10)

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C e x t = 2 A π w 4 ( λ λ c ) 2 + w 2 ,
I / I 0 = β C e x t   ,
λ I = λ c + α ( n 0 + n 2 I ) = λ c + α n 2 I ,
W e x t = C e x t I 0   .
I 0 = W e x t π 2 A 4 ( λ λ c α n 2 β W e x t ) 2 + w 2 w .
d I 0 d W e x t = π 2 A w [ 4 ( λ λ c ) 2 + w 2 16 α β n 2 ( λ λ c ) W e x t + 12 α 2 β 2 n 2 2 W e x t 2 ] .
W e x t , 1 = 2 ( λ λ 0 ) 3 α β n 2 ( 1 1 p ) , W e x t , 2 = 2 ( λ λ 0 ) 3 α β n 2 ( 1 + 1 p ) ,
I 1 = 8 π ( λ λ 0 ) 3 27 A α β n 2 w [ 1 1 p ] [ 1 + p + 1 2 1 p ] , I 2 = 8 π ( λ λ 0 ) 3 27 A α β n 2 w [ 1 + 1 p ] [ 1 + p 1 2 1 p ] .
W e x t , 2 W e x t , 1 ( W e x t , 2 + W e x t , 1 ) / 2 = 1 p ,
I 2 I 1 ( I 2 + I 1 ) / 2 = 2 ( 1 p ) 3 / 2 1 + p .

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