Abstract

Improved wavelength calibrators for high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs will be essential for precision radial velocity (RV) detection of Earth-like exoplanets and direct observation of cosmological deceleration. The astro-comb is a combination of an octave-spanning femtosecond laser frequency comb and a Fabry-Pérot cavity used to achieve calibrator line spacings that can be resolved by an astrophysical spectrograph. Systematic spectral shifts associated with the cavity can be 0.1-1 MHz, corresponding to RV errors of 10-100 cm/s, due to the dispersive properties of the cavity mirrors over broad spectral widths. Although these systematic shifts are very stable, their correction is crucial to high accuracy astrophysical spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate an in-situ technique to determine the systematic shifts of astro-comb lines due to finite Fabry-Pérot cavity dispersion. The technique is practical for implementation at a telescope-based spectrograph to enable wavelength calibration accuracy better than 10 cm/s.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad- spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Schliesser, C. Gohle, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Complete characterization of a broadband high-nesse cavity using an optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14, 5975–5983 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Loeb, “Direct measurement of cosmological parameters from the cosmic deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 499, L111–L114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1962 (1)

A. Sandage, “The change of redshift and apparent luminosity of galaxies due to the deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 136, 319–333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, Y.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

Benedick, A.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benz, W.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertaux, J.-L.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonfils, X.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouchy, F.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braje, D. A.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad- spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

Correia, A. C. M.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

Delfosse, X.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad- spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fendel, P.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad- spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

Forveille, T.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glenday, A.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

Hansch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

A. Schliesser, C. Gohle, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Complete characterization of a broadband high-nesse cavity using an optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14, 5975–5983 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

Kärtner, F.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad- spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lalezari, R.

Laskar, J.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.-H.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loeb, A.

A. Loeb, “Direct measurement of cosmological parameters from the cosmic deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 499, L111–L114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lovis, C.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

Mayor, M.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moll, K. D.

Mordasini, C.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osterman, S.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad- spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

Pepe, F.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrier, C.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Queloz, D.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandage, A.

A. Sandage, “The change of redshift and apparent luminosity of galaxies due to the deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 136, 319–333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Santos, N. C.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasselov, D.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivan, J.-P.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sizmann, A.

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

A. Schliesser, C. Gohle, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Complete characterization of a broadband high-nesse cavity using an optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14, 5975–5983 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udry, S.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsworth, R.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry-Perot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. xi. super-earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

A. Sandage, “The change of redshift and apparent luminosity of galaxies due to the deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 136, 319–333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

A. Loeb, “Direct measurement of cosmological parameters from the cosmic deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 499, L111–L114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ESO Messenger (1)

C. Araujo-Hauck, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, and M. T. Murphy, “Future wavelength calibration standards at ESO: the laser frequency comb,” ESO Messenger 129, 24–26 (2007).

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad- spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kärtner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 208, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, and J.-P. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. Osterman, S. Diddmas, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in Proc. SPIE, 6693, G1 (2007).

P. O. Schmidt, S. Kimeswenger, and H. U. Kaeufl, “A new generation of spectrometer calibration techniques based on optical frequency combs,” in Proc. 2007 ESO Instrument Calibration Workshop (ESO Astrophysics Symposia series, Springer, in the press)

C. Lovis, F. Pepe, F. Bouchy, G. L. Curto, M. Mayor, L. Pasquini, D. Queloz, G. Rupprecht, S. Udry, and S. Zucker, “The exoplanet hunter HARPS: unequalled accuracy and perspectives toward 1 cm s−1 precision,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690P1–62690P23 (2006).

G. Furesz, “Design and application of high resolution and multiobject spectrographs: Dynamical studies of open clusters,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Szeged, Hungary (2008).

A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of astro-comb used in measurements reported here. A 30-GHz line spacing is generated from a 1-GHz source comb mode-filtered by a Fabry-Pérot Cavity stabilized to an injected diode laser via the Pound-Drever-Hall method in transmission. The diode laser is phase locked to one source comb line, while the source comb is stabilized to an atomic frequency reference.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Sketch of (i) source comb lines; (ii) Fabry-Pérot Cavity (FPC) resonances with a Free Spectral Range (FSR) 30 times the repetition rate; and (iii) astro-comb spectrum. For these settings, one source comb line out of 30 passes the FPC unattenuated, producing an astro-comb spacing of ~ 30 GHz that can be resolved by a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph. The wavelength of the reference diode laser is shown slightly detuned from the source comb to compensate for FPC dispersion between the diode laser wavelength and the central astro-comb wavelength as described in the text. (b) Astro-comb lines measured with the TRES spectrograph cover a bandwidth ≈ 1000 Å. The gaps in the spectrum are not measured by the spectrograph due to light in these spectral regions not focusing onto its CCD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Source comb spectrum as measured with a commercial optical spectrum analyzer (ANDO AQ6315, R≈ 1, 000). The source comb consists of ~ 105 narrow lines (width < 1 MHz), equally spaced in frequency (≈ 1 GHz, not resolved here), and spanning more than an octave between 6000 Å and 12000 Å.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurements using the TRES spectrograph of the peak intensity of one astro-comb spectral line as the diode laser frequency, and thus the Fabry-Perót cavity length, is varied (solid circles) and a fit of Eq. (1) to the data (solid line). Uncertainties in the linewidth and in the offset of the peak from zero diode detuning are approximately 1 MHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) TRES measurements of the finesse of the Fabry-Pérot cavity and (b) phase variation of the astro-comb lines in the range of 7700 Å – 8700 Å. The small, rapid phase variation in (b) is due to 0.1% reflections from the back surfaces of the cavity’s antireflection coated mirror substrates (see text).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Polynomial fit of the TRES measurement of the cavity phase deviation as described in the text (solid curve) compared to a model derived from air dispersion and mirror phase delay as measured with a white light interferometer (dashed curve). The constant and linear phase variation which depend upon the absolute cavity position and length are removed from both curves for clarity.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Estimate of systematic wavelength (frequency) shift of astro-comb line centers that would be measured at the TRES spectrograph if nearest suppressed source comb lines are not included in the model used to fit for the wavelength solution.

Equations (9)

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I m = I m T m 1 + ( 2 F m π ) 2 sin 2 ( ϕ m 2 ) ,
ϕ m = 2 π ( 2 L c f m n m + 0 fm τ ( f ) d f ) ,
Δ m [ 2 L c ( n m + f m dn m d f ) + τ m ] 1 .
δ L c 2 n d f d [ τ d + 2 L c ( n d + f d dn df f d ) ] δ f
c 2 n d f d Δ d δ f ,
δ ϕ m = 4 π n m f m c δ L 2 π n m f m n d f d Δ d δ f .
δ ϕ m = 2 π f FPC f m Δ m ,
F = 2 π Δ ϕ FWHM ,
δ f m f r ( Δ m f r 2 F ) 2 [ T m + 1 I m + 1 T m 1 I m 1 T m I m 2 δ ϕ m π Δ m f r ]

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