Abstract

A novel approach to chemical application of long period grating (LPG) optical fibers was demonstrated, which were modified with a film nanoassembled by the alternate deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA). Nanopores of the sensor film could be used for sensitive adsorption of chemical species in water, which induced the changes in the refractive index (RI) of the light propagating in the cladding mode of the optical fiber, with a concomitant effect on the transmission spectrum in the LPG region. The prepared fiber sensor was highly sensitive to the change in the RI of the surrounding medium and the response time was very fast within 10 s. In addition, chemical infusion into the film was tested using a porphyrin compound, tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl)porphine (TSPP), which could be saturated within a few min. The lowest detectable concentration of the TSPP analyte was 10 μM. The TSPP infusion led to the development of well-pronounced dual resonance bands, indicating a large increase in the optical thickness of the film. The RI of the film was dramatically increased from 1.200 to ca. 1.540.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

S S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical Fiber Long Period Grating based Selective Vapour Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, W. J. Batty, S. W. James, and S.-W. Lee, “Nano-assembled thin film gas sensor. II. An intrinsic high sensitive fiber optic sensor for ammonia detection,” Sens. Mater. 21, 179–189 (2009).

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period fiber grating with sol–gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Corres, I. R. Matías, I. del Villar, and F. J. Arregui, “Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(3), 455–463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

2005 (4)

S. O. Korposh, N. Takahara, J. J. Ramsden, S.-W. Lee, and T. Kunitake, “Nano–assembled thin film gas sensors. I. Ammonia detection by a porphyrin–based multilayer film,” JBPC 6(3), 125–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Morales-Bahnik, R. Czolk, and H. J. Ache, “An optochemical ammonia sensor based on immobilized metalloporphyrins,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 19(1-3), 493–496 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Achaerandio, M.

Ache, H. J.

A. Morales-Bahnik, R. Czolk, and H. J. Ache, “An optochemical ammonia sensor based on immobilized metalloporphyrins,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 19(1-3), 493–496 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

Ashwell, G.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

Batty, W. J.

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, W. J. Batty, S. W. James, and S.-W. Lee, “Nano-assembled thin film gas sensor. II. An intrinsic high sensitive fiber optic sensor for ammonia detection,” Sens. Mater. 21, 179–189 (2009).

Bennion, I.

Bhatia, V.

Bravo, J.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, S. C.

Cohen, R. E.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contessa, L.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corres, J. M.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Corres, I. R. Matías, I. del Villar, and F. J. Arregui, “Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(3), 455–463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

J. Keith, L. C. Hess, W. U. Spendel, J. A. Cox, and G. E. Pacey, “The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption,” Tatanta 70, 818–822 (2006).

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Czolk, R.

A. Morales-Bahnik, R. Czolk, and H. J. Ache, “An optochemical ammonia sensor based on immobilized metalloporphyrins,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 19(1-3), 493–496 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, F.

S S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical Fiber Long Period Grating based Selective Vapour Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

del Villar, I.

Ferreira, L. A.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gloge, D.

Goicoechea, J.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period fiber grating with sol–gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, G.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hess, L. C.

J. Keith, L. C. Hess, W. U. Spendel, J. A. Cox, and G. E. Pacey, “The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption,” Tatanta 70, 818–822 (2006).

Higson, S. P. J.

S S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical Fiber Long Period Grating based Selective Vapour Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishaq, I.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

James, S.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical Fiber Long Period Grating based Selective Vapour Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, W. J. Batty, S. W. James, and S.-W. Lee, “Nano-assembled thin film gas sensor. II. An intrinsic high sensitive fiber optic sensor for ammonia detection,” Sens. Mater. 21, 179–189 (2009).

S. C. Cheung, S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Response of fiber optic long period gratings operating near the phase matching turning point to the deposition of nanostructured coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 897–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Fiber Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keith, J.

J. Keith, L. C. Hess, W. U. Spendel, J. A. Cox, and G. E. Pacey, “The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption,” Tatanta 70, 818–822 (2006).

Kodaira, S.

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, W. J. Batty, S. W. James, and S.-W. Lee, “Nano-assembled thin film gas sensor. II. An intrinsic high sensitive fiber optic sensor for ammonia detection,” Sens. Mater. 21, 179–189 (2009).

Konstantaki, M.

Korposh, S.

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, W. J. Batty, S. W. James, and S.-W. Lee, “Nano-assembled thin film gas sensor. II. An intrinsic high sensitive fiber optic sensor for ammonia detection,” Sens. Mater. 21, 179–189 (2009).

Korposh, S. O.

S. O. Korposh, N. Takahara, J. J. Ramsden, S.-W. Lee, and T. Kunitake, “Nano–assembled thin film gas sensors. I. Ammonia detection by a porphyrin–based multilayer film,” JBPC 6(3), 125–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunitake, T.

S. O. Korposh, N. Takahara, J. J. Ramsden, S.-W. Lee, and T. Kunitake, “Nano–assembled thin film gas sensors. I. Ammonia detection by a porphyrin–based multilayer film,” JBPC 6(3), 125–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, W. J. Batty, S. W. James, and S.-W. Lee, “Nano-assembled thin film gas sensor. II. An intrinsic high sensitive fiber optic sensor for ammonia detection,” Sens. Mater. 21, 179–189 (2009).

S. O. Korposh, N. Takahara, J. J. Ramsden, S.-W. Lee, and T. Kunitake, “Nano–assembled thin film gas sensors. I. Ammonia detection by a porphyrin–based multilayer film,” JBPC 6(3), 125–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lopezhiguera, J.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

Matías, I. R.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Corres, I. R. Matías, I. del Villar, and F. J. Arregui, “Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(3), 455–463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, “Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long period fiber gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 651–658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morales-Bahnik, A.

A. Morales-Bahnik, R. Czolk, and H. J. Ache, “An optochemical ammonia sensor based on immobilized metalloporphyrins,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 19(1-3), 493–496 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pacey, G. E.

J. Keith, L. C. Hess, W. U. Spendel, J. A. Cox, and G. E. Pacey, “The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption,” Tatanta 70, 818–822 (2006).

Pilla, P.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity opto-chemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pispas, S.

Pissadakis, S.

Quintela, A.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramsden, J. J.

S. O. Korposh, N. Takahara, J. J. Ramsden, S.-W. Lee, and T. Kunitake, “Nano–assembled thin film gas sensors. I. Ammonia detection by a porphyrin–based multilayer film,” JBPC 6(3), 125–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rees, N. D.

Rubner, M. F.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, J. L.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

Spendel, W. U.

J. Keith, L. C. Hess, W. U. Spendel, J. A. Cox, and G. E. Pacey, “The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption,” Tatanta 70, 818–822 (2006).

Takahara, N.

S. O. Korposh, N. Takahara, J. J. Ramsden, S.-W. Lee, and T. Kunitake, “Nano–assembled thin film gas sensors. I. Ammonia detection by a porphyrin–based multilayer film,” JBPC 6(3), 125–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R.

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical Fiber Long Period Grating based Selective Vapour Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Cheung, S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Response of fiber optic long period gratings operating near the phase matching turning point to the deposition of nanostructured coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 897–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Fiber Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Topliss, S S. M.

S S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical Fiber Long Period Grating based Selective Vapour Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Topliss, S. M.

Vainos, N. A.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Viegas, D.

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period fiber grating with sol–gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, L.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “High sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. M. Corres, I. R. Matías, I. del Villar, and F. J. Arregui, “Design of pH sensors in long-period fiber gratings using polymeric nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(3), 455–463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Fiber Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JBPC (1)

S. O. Korposh, N. Takahara, J. J. Ramsden, S.-W. Lee, and T. Kunitake, “Nano–assembled thin film gas sensors. I. Ammonia detection by a porphyrin–based multilayer film,” JBPC 6(3), 125–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period fiber grating with sol–gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Viegas, J. Goicoechea, J. M. Corres, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and I. R. Matías, “A fiber optic humidity sensor based on a long-period fiber grating coated with a thin film of SiO2 nanospheres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (3)

I. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. James, G. Ashwell, J. Lopezhiguera, and R. Tatam, “Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 738–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Morales-Bahnik, R. Czolk, and H. J. Ache, “An optochemical ammonia sensor based on immobilized metalloporphyrins,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 19(1-3), 493–496 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical Fiber Long Period Grating based Selective Vapour Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Mater. (1)

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, W. J. Batty, S. W. James, and S.-W. Lee, “Nano-assembled thin film gas sensor. II. An intrinsic high sensitive fiber optic sensor for ammonia detection,” Sens. Mater. 21, 179–189 (2009).

Tatanta (1)

J. Keith, L. C. Hess, W. U. Spendel, J. A. Cox, and G. E. Pacey, “The investigation of the behavior of a long period grating sensor with a copper sensitive coating fabricated by layer-by-layer electrostatic adsorption,” Tatanta 70, 818–822 (2006).

Other (1)

S. Korposh, S. Kodaira, S.-W. Lee, W.J. Batty, S.W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Deposition of SiO2/polymer nanoporous thin films on long-period grating (LPG) optical fibers and dramatic enhancement of the resonance bands,” Sensing Technology, 2008. ICST 2008, 666–669, (2008) doi: 10.1109/ICSENST.2008.4757189.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (2576 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the LPG structure and (b) transmission spectra of uncoated LPG fibers with different grating periods: (i) 80 μm, (ii) 100 μm, and (iii) 400 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The relationship between the grating period and the wavelength at which coupling occurs to a set of symmetric cladding modes (LP0,20–LP0,25), where numbers refer to the order of the cladding mode, LP0x, assuming that the LPG was fabricated in an optical fiber of a cut off wavelength of 670 nm. (b) The influence of an increase in the surrounding refractive index, analogous to the deposition of a coating onto the cladding, on the phase matching curve for LP0,21. The surrounding refractive index is assumed to change from 1 to 1.4. The arrow indicates the direction of increasing refractive index. The dashed line is a guide to the eye to enable the reader to see the influence of different grating periods on the LPG transmission spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the alternate deposition of SiO2 NPs and PDDA onto the surface of an LPG. The inset shows an SEM image of the cross-section of a 10-cycle PDDA/SiO2 film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Adsorption isotherm of the PDDA/SiO2 film: squares, adsorption part of the adsorption isotherm; circles, desorption part of the adsorption isotherm. (b) Pore size distribution in the PDDA/SiO2 film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Changes in the transmission spectrum of the 100 μm period LPG of SiO2 NPs and PDDA (each spectrum was recorded in the colloidal SiO2 solution in water) and (b) wavelength shifts and changes in transmission as a function of the number of deposition cycles for the LP0,20 and LP0,21 resonance bands, respectively; the curve is a guide to the eye only.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Changes in the transmission spectrum due to the alternate deposition of PDDA and SiO2 NPs on the 80 μm period LPG recorded in the colloidal SiO2 solution; the inset shows enlarged view of the resonance band at 626 nm. (b) Wavelength shifts of the three resonance bands at 608, 726, and 926 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Changes in the transmission spectrum due to the alternate deposition of PDDA and SiO2 NPs on the 400 μm period LPG, recorded in the colloidal SiO2 solution; the inset shows an enlarged view of the resonance band at 798 nm. (b) Wavelength shifts at 798 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Media 1) (a) Transmission spectra of the 100 μm LPG fiber under different conditions: black line, in air without coating; red line, in water without coating; green line, in water after deposition of the (PDDA/SiO2)10 film. (b) Kinetic changes of the transmission spectrum of the SiO2 NP coated LPG fiber measured at 800 nm in different phases from air to water.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Transmission spectra of the SiO2 NP coated LPG and (b) the dynamic transmission change recorded at 800 nm when the SiO2 NP coated LPG was immersed in a TSPP solution (1 mM in water).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The evolution of the transmission spectrum of the SiO2 NP coated LPG (period 100 μm), when immersed in an aqueous solution of TSPP (1 mM). The grey scale represents the measured transmission, with white corresponding to 100%, and black to 0%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Transmission spectra of the (PDDA/SiO2)10 coated LPG; (b) transmission change recorded at 800 nm in response to different concentrations of TSPP (from 10 μM to 1 mM in water) and (c) dynamic response to the three infusions of TSPP into the PDDA/SiO2 porous film recorded at 800 nm; the infusion was conducted after complete removal of TSPP from the PDDA/SiO2 using NH3 of 1000 ppm.

Equations (1)

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λ ( x ) = ( n c o r e n c l a d ( x ) ) Λ

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