Abstract

This work presents the successful fabrication of 1D photonic crystals (PCs) with two defects using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. We study the coupling behavior of the two PC defects and demonstrate the ability to control the defect interaction. GLAD allows engineering of film nanostructure to produce PCs with sinusoidal refractive index variation through control of film nanostructure and porosity. Two phase-shift defects are introduced into the refractive index profile of the film. The observed defect-defect coupling is explained by a coupled-oscillator model and the interaction strength is found to decrease exponentially with increasing defect separation. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the promise of GLAD as a platform technology for PC research and device fabrication.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kaminska and K. Robbie, “Birefringent omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Opt. 43(7), 1570–1576 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. G. Gospodyn, M. T. Taschuk, P. C. P. Hrudey, Y. Y. Tsui, R. Fedosejevs, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, “Photoluminescence emission profiles of Y(2)O(3) : Eu films composed of high-low density stacks produced by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2798–2805 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, “Inorganic chiral optical materials,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 889–897 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. van Popta, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, “Double-handed circular Bragg phenomena in polygonal helix thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083517 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. C. P. Hrudey, B. Szeto, and M. J. Brett, “Strong circular Bragg phenomena in self-ordered porous helical nanorod arrays of Alq3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 251106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, and K. Robbie, “Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters,” Appl. Opt. 42(20), 4212–4219 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. C. van Popta, K. R. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Sidelobe suppression in chiral optical filters by apodization of the local form birefringence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(10), 3140–3149 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. M. Krause and M. J. Brett, “Spatially graded nanostructure chiral films as tunable circular polarizers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3111–3118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. Steele, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing,” Sens. Act. B 120(1), 213–219 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Martín-Palma, V. Torres-Costa, and C. G. Pantano, “Distributed Bragg reflectors based on chalcogenide glasses for chemical optical sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. M. Hawkeye, K. M. Krause, and M. J. Brett, “Ambient humidity monitoring using a 1D photonic crystal sensor fabricated with glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7356, 73560G (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2545–2547 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett. 24(11), 711–713 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10101–10108 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Designing coupled-resonator optical waveguide delay lines,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(9), 1665–1673 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, and S. Mookherjea, “Polymeric Mach-Zehnder interferometer using serially coupled microring resonators,” Opt. Express 11(21), 2666–2671 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 083901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Notomi, E. Kuramohi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, “Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 849–855 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(10), 2140–2143 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Wavelength and loss splitting in directly coupled photonic-crystal defect microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16255–16264 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, and F. Laloe, Quantum Mechanics, vol. 1 (Wiley-Interscience, 1977).
  32. S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Guven and E. Ozbay, “Coupling and phase analysis of cavity structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. E. Aspnes, “Optical-properties of thin-films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, “Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4573–4579 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. W. H. Southwell, “Spectral response calculations of rugate filters using coupled-wave theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(9), 1558–1563 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  37. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 3rd ed.

2009 (3)

R. J. Martín-Palma, V. Torres-Costa, and C. G. Pantano, “Distributed Bragg reflectors based on chalcogenide glasses for chemical optical sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hawkeye, K. M. Krause, and M. J. Brett, “Ambient humidity monitoring using a 1D photonic crystal sensor fabricated with glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7356, 73560G (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (3)

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, K. R. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Sidelobe suppression in chiral optical filters by apodization of the local form birefringence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(10), 3140–3149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. J. Steele, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing,” Sens. Act. B 120(1), 213–219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. C. P. Hrudey, B. Szeto, and M. J. Brett, “Strong circular Bragg phenomena in self-ordered porous helical nanorod arrays of Alq3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 251106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, “Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 849–855 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Guven and E. Ozbay, “Coupling and phase analysis of cavity structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, “Double-handed circular Bragg phenomena in polygonal helix thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (4)

2001 (3)

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, “Inorganic chiral optical materials,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10101–10108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(10), 2140–2143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical-properties of thin-films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical-properties of thin-films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Atlasov, K. A.

Balet, L.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(10), 2140–2143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beydaghyan, G.

Brandão, F. G. S. L.

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, “Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 849–855 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

M. M. Hawkeye, K. M. Krause, and M. J. Brett, “Ambient humidity monitoring using a 1D photonic crystal sensor fabricated with glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7356, 73560G (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Krause and M. J. Brett, “Spatially graded nanostructure chiral films as tunable circular polarizers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3111–3118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Gospodyn, M. T. Taschuk, P. C. P. Hrudey, Y. Y. Tsui, R. Fedosejevs, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, “Photoluminescence emission profiles of Y(2)O(3) : Eu films composed of high-low density stacks produced by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2798–2805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, K. R. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Sidelobe suppression in chiral optical filters by apodization of the local form birefringence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(10), 3140–3149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing,” Sens. Act. B 120(1), 213–219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. C. P. Hrudey, B. Szeto, and M. J. Brett, “Strong circular Bragg phenomena in self-ordered porous helical nanorod arrays of Alq3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 251106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, “Double-handed circular Bragg phenomena in polygonal helix thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2545–2547 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, “Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4573–4579 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

Centeno, E.

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10101–10108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Maggt, P. J. I.

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dwir, B.

Fan, S.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 083901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

Felbacq, D.

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10101–10108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Francardi, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerardino, A.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gospodyn, J. G.

Guioli, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

K. Guven and E. Ozbay, “Coupling and phase analysis of cavity structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, M. J.

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, “Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 849–855 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hawkeye, M. M.

M. M. Hawkeye, K. M. Krause, and M. J. Brett, “Ambient humidity monitoring using a 1D photonic crystal sensor fabricated with glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7356, 73560G (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing,” Sens. Act. B 120(1), 213–219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2545–2547 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatiw, A. J. P.

K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I.

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, “Inorganic chiral optical materials,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I. J.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hrudey, P. C. P.

Huang, Y.

Intonti, F.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaminska, K.

Kapon, E.

Karlsson, K. F.

Kennedy, S. R.

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krause, K. M.

M. M. Hawkeye, K. M. Krause, and M. J. Brett, “Ambient humidity monitoring using a 1D photonic crystal sensor fabricated with glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7356, 73560G (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Krause and M. J. Brett, “Spatially graded nanostructure chiral films as tunable circular polarizers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3111–3118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuramohi, E.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramohi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Li, L. H.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, R. I.

K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Palma, R. J.

R. J. Martín-Palma, V. Torres-Costa, and C. G. Pantano, “Distributed Bragg reflectors based on chalcogenide glasses for chemical optical sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCall, M. W.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramohi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

K. Guven and E. Ozbay, “Coupling and phase analysis of cavity structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(10), 2140–2143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paloczi, G. T.

Pantano, C. G.

R. J. Martín-Palma, V. Torres-Costa, and C. G. Pantano, “Distributed Bragg reflectors based on chalcogenide glasses for chemical optical sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Plenio, M. B.

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, “Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 849–855 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poon, J. K. S.

Reynolds, A. L.

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riboli, F.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robbie, K.

K. Kaminska and K. Robbie, “Birefringent omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Opt. 43(7), 1570–1576 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, and K. Robbie, “Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters,” Appl. Opt. 42(20), 4212–4219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rudra, A.

Scherer, A.

Scheuer, J.

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, J. A.

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sit, J. C.

Southwell, W. H.

Steele, J. J.

J. J. Steele, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing,” Sens. Act. B 120(1), 213–219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, B.

P. C. P. Hrudey, B. Szeto, and M. J. Brett, “Strong circular Bragg phenomena in self-ordered porous helical nanorod arrays of Alq3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 251106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramohi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taschuk, M. T.

Temelkuran, B.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(10), 2140–2143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorn, K. E.

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Costa, V.

R. J. Martín-Palma, V. Torres-Costa, and C. G. Pantano, “Distributed Bragg reflectors based on chalcogenide glasses for chemical optical sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, Y. Y.

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Popta, A. C.

A. C. van Popta, K. R. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Sidelobe suppression in chiral optical filters by apodization of the local form birefringence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(10), 3140–3149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing,” Sens. Act. B 120(1), 213–219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, “Double-handed circular Bragg phenomena in polygonal helix thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2545–2547 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Popta, K. R.

Vignolini, S.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. H.

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, “Inorganic chiral optical materials,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 083901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

Zani, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. M. Krause and M. J. Brett, “Spatially graded nanostructure chiral films as tunable circular polarizers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3111–3118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, “Inorganic chiral optical materials,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, M. Zani, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. H. Li, L. Balet, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Guioli, “Near-field imaging of coupled photonic-crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. P. Hrudey, B. Szeto, and M. J. Brett, “Strong circular Bragg phenomena in self-ordered porous helical nanorod arrays of Alq3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 251106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Robbie, A. J. P. Hnatiw, M. J. Brett, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. McMullin, “Inhomogeneous thin film optical filters fabricated using glancing angle deposition,” Electron. Lett. 33(14), 1213–1214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

A. L. Reynolds, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. I. de Maggt, “Coupled defects in photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1860–1867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, “Double-handed circular Bragg phenomena in polygonal helix thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

R. J. Martín-Palma, V. Torres-Costa, and C. G. Pantano, “Distributed Bragg reflectors based on chalcogenide glasses for chemical optical sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(5), 055109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Notomi, E. Kuramohi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, “Strongly interacting polaritons in coupled arrays of cavities,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 849–855 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, “Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 57–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, “Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 33–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, “Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10101–10108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven and E. Ozbay, “Coupling and phase analysis of cavity structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 083901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(10), 2140–2143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. M. Hawkeye, K. M. Krause, and M. J. Brett, “Ambient humidity monitoring using a 1D photonic crystal sensor fabricated with glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7356, 73560G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Act. B (1)

J. J. Steele, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing,” Sens. Act. B 120(1), 213–219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical-properties of thin-films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, and F. Laloe, Quantum Mechanics, vol. 1 (Wiley-Interscience, 1977).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 3rd ed.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The sinusoidal refractive index profile with two phase-shift defects separated by Δz = 2P. (b) Scanning electron micrograph (35 000 X magnification) of a nanostructured 1D PC fabricated with TiO2 using the GLAD technique. The film smoothly alternates between a high and low density structure for 16 periods. (c) Zoomed in view of the phase shift defects from (b). Shifting the periodic structural variation by π rad creates a PC defect. Two defects are present in this image separated by two periods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The optical transmittance spectra of a film with two defects separated by Δz = 4P. Inside the photonic bandgap, two defect modes are observed. These modes are created by coupling between the fields localized at the phase-shift defects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmittance (data points) in the vicinity of the resonant transmittance peaks inside the bandgap. The spectra correspond to defect separations of (a) two periods, (b) three periods, (c) five periods, and (d) eight periods. Also shown on the spectra are Lorentzian lineshapes fit to the measured data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured defect mode separation is plotted as a function of deparation between defects in the PC. The theoretical curve plotted is Eq. (4) in the text after fitting to the data set.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 E ± = E a + E b ± [ ( E a E b ) 2 + 4 g 2 ] 1 2
n ( z ) = n a + 1 2 n p sin [ 4 π n a z λ 0 + φ 0 ]
L ( E ) = I 1 γ 1 2 ( E E 1 ) 2 + γ 1 2 + I 2 γ 2 2 ( E E 2 ) 2 + γ 2 2
Δ E = ( A 2 + [ 2 B exp ( C Δ z ) ] 2 ) 1 2

Metrics