Abstract

We report on efficient generation of continuous-wave squeezed light and second harmonics with a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 (PPMgLN) crystal which enables us to utilize the large nonlinear optical coefficient d33. We achieved the squeezing level of −7.60±0.15dB at 860 nm by utilizing a subthreshold optical parametric oscillator with a PPMgLN crystal. We also generated 400 mW of second harmonics at 430 nm from 570 mW of fundamental waves with 70% of conversion efficiency by using a PPMgLN crystal inside an external cavity.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513-577 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light for Sensitivity Beyond Vacuum-State Limit," Appl. Phys. B 55, 279-290 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, "Observation of -9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement," Opt. Express 15, 4321-4327 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maıtre, and C. Fabre, "Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Lawrence, R. L. Byer, M. M. Fejer, W. Bowen, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, "Squeezed singly resonant second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1592-1598 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhang, "Generation of a squeezing vacuum at a telecommunication wavelength with periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, "Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, "Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4062-4064 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric Interaction of Focused Gaussian Light Beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, "Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268-2294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhang, "Generation of a squeezing vacuum at a telecommunication wavelength with periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, "Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, "Observation of -9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement," Opt. Express 15, 4321-4327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513-577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, "Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4062-4064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maıtre, and C. Fabre, "Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1992

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light for Sensitivity Beyond Vacuum-State Limit," Appl. Phys. B 55, 279-290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric Interaction of Focused Gaussian Light Beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, "Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

Bowen, W.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric Interaction of Focused Gaussian Light Beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, S. L.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513-577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

Carri, J.

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light for Sensitivity Beyond Vacuum-State Limit," Appl. Phys. B 55, 279-290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Coudreau, T.

K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maıtre, and C. Fabre, "Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Feng, J.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhang, "Generation of a squeezing vacuum at a telecommunication wavelength with periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, C. A.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, "Observation of -9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement," Opt. Express 15, 4321-4327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, "Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuki, H.

H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, "Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4062-4064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, R.

Kannari, F.

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light for Sensitivity Beyond Vacuum-State Limit," Appl. Phys. B 55, 279-290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kitamoto, A.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric Interaction of Focused Gaussian Light Beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

Lastzka, N.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, M. J.

Li, Y.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhang, "Generation of a squeezing vacuum at a telecommunication wavelength with periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maıtre, and C. Fabre, "Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mehmet, M.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Polzik, E. S.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light for Sensitivity Beyond Vacuum-State Limit," Appl. Phys. B 55, 279-290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, "Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4062-4064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, "Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268-2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, J. L.

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, "Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4062-4064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takeno, Y.

Tian, X.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhang, "Generation of a squeezing vacuum at a telecommunication wavelength with periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vahlbruch, H.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Loock, P.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513-577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, H.

Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, "Observation of -9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement," Opt. Express 15, 4321-4327 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, "Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yukawa, M.

Zhang, K.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhang, "Generation of a squeezing vacuum at a telecommunication wavelength with periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K. S.

K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maıtre, and C. Fabre, "Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light for Sensitivity Beyond Vacuum-State Limit," Appl. Phys. B 55, 279-290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator, " Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Feng, X. Tian, Y. Li, and K. Zhang, "Generation of a squeezing vacuum at a telecommunication wavelength with periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, "Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, "Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4062-4064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Suzuki, H. Yonezawa, F. Kannari, M. Sasaki, and A. Furusawa, "7 dB quadrature squeezing at 860 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric Interaction of Focused Gaussian Light Beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maıtre, and C. Fabre, "Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 513-577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Furusawa, J. L. Sørensen, S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, H. J. Kimble, and E. S. Polzik, "Unconditional Quantum Teleportation," Science 282, 706-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Observations of a periodically poled structure at +Z surface where an electrode was attached.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A property of frequency doubler with the PPMgLN crystal. Circles and squares indicate the power of second harmonic wave at 430 nm and the conversion efficiency respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) T dependence of the oscillation threshold. Solid line is calculation result and squares indicate experimental results. (b) Estimation of the escape efficiency at (i) x=0 (P 2ω = 0), (ii) x=0.7 (P 2ω ≈ 0.5Pth ), and (iii) x=1 (P 2ω = Pth ).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Noise level at pump power of 200mW. (i)Shot noise level, (ii)LO phase is scanned, (iii)LO phase is locked at the squeezed quadrature, and (iv)LO phase is locked the antisqueezed quadrature. Traces (i), (iii), and (iv) are averaged for 20 times.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pump power dependence of the squeezing and antisqueezing levels. Circles/squares indicate the observed squeezing/antisqueezing levels. Solid curves indicate the results of theoretical calculation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of previous squeezing experiments. Nonlinear optical coefficient of MgLN is the value of MgO 5% doped LiNbO3 at 1064 nm and others are values at 852 nm. The values indicated with * and ** are estimated with experimental parameter described in references [4, 6] respectively.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P th = ( T + L ) 2 4 E NL ,
ρ = T T + L ,
L = L 0 + a P 2 ω
P th = ( 4 E NL 4 E NL a ( T + L 0 ) ) 2 a 2 .
ρ = T T + L 0 + a P th x 2
T opt = 2 ( E NL L 0 a L 0 ) .
R ± = 1 ± α ρ 4 x ( 1 x ) 2 + 4 f 2
R ± = R ± cos 2 θ ~ + R sin 2 θ ~ .

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