Abstract

Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a new optical molecular imaging modality, which can monitor both physiological and pathological processes by using bioluminescent light-emitting probes in small living animal. Especially, this technology possesses great potential in drug development, early detection, and therapy monitoring in preclinical settings. In the present study, we developed a dual modality BLT prototype system with Micro-computed tomography (MicroCT) registration approach, and improved the quantitative reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive hp finite element method (hp-FEM). Detailed comparisons of source reconstruction between the heterogeneous and homogeneous mouse models were performed. The models include mice with implanted luminescence source and tumor-bearing mice with firefly luciferase report gene. Our data suggest that the reconstruction based on heterogeneous mouse model is more accurate in localization and quantification than the homogeneous mouse model with appropriate optical parameters and that BLT allows super-early tumor detection in vivo based on tomographic reconstruction of heterogeneous mouse model signal.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

Y. Lu, X. Zhang, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, J. Tian, T. F. Chan, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Source reconstruction for spectrally-resolved bioluminescence tomography with sparse a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8062–8080 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-10-8062 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Han, J. Liang, X. Qu, Y. Hou, N. Ren, J. Mao, and J. Tian, “A source reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive hp-FEM for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14481–14494 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14481 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16266–16280 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16266 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feng, K. Jia, C. Qin, G. Yan, S. Zhu, X. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Tian, “Three-dimensional bioluminescence tomography based on Bayesian approach,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16834–16848 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-16834 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Qin, J. Tian, X. Yang, J. Feng, K. Liu, J. Liu, G. Yan, S. Zhu, and M. Xu, “Adaptive improved element free Galerkin method for quasi- or multi-spectral bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21925–21934 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21925 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Feng, K. Jia, G. Yan, S. Zhu, C. Qin, Y. Lv, and J. Tian, “An optimal permissible source region strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15640–15654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15640 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Qin, J. Tian, X. Yang, K. Liu, G. Yan, J. Feng, Y. Lv, and M. Xu, “Galerkin-based meshless methods for photon transport in the biological tissue,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20317–20333 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20317 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cong, H. Shen, A. X. Cong, and G. Wang, “Integral equations of the photon fluence rate and flux based on a generalized Delta-Eddington phase function,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3D multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(14), 3921–3942 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

2007

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Virostko, A. C. Powers, and E. D. Jansen, “Validation of luminescent source reconstruction using single-view spectrally resolved bioluminescence images,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2540–2547 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-13-2540 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, W. Cong, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for bioluminescence tomography from partial measurement,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11095–11116 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11095 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8211 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, H. Shen, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, and W. Cong, “The first bioluminescence tomography system for simultaneous acquisition of multi-view and multi-spectral data,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 1, 58601 (2006).

G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, T. C. Doyle, O. Coquoz, F. Kalish, B. W. Rice, and C. H. Contag, “Emission spectra of bioluminescent reporters and interaction with mammalian tissue determine the sensitivity of detection in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 041210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6756–6771 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6756 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

G. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, “Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner,” Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 432–440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

P. R. Contag, I. N. Olomu, D. K. Stevenson, and C. H. Contag, “Bioluminescent indicators in living mammals,” Nat. Med. 4(2), 245–247 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

I. Kurose, S. Miura, H. Saito, S. Tada, D. Fukumura, H. Higuchi, and H. Ishii, “Rat Kupffer cell-derived nitric oxide modulates induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell,” Gastroenterology 109(6), 1958–1968 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11 Pt 1), 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3D multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(14), 3921–3942 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allard, M.

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11 Pt 1), 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouman, C. A.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3D multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(14), 3921–3942 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, M. D.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 432–440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, F.

F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, T. F.

Chatziioannou, A. F.

Y. Lu, X. Zhang, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, J. Tian, T. F. Chan, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Source reconstruction for spectrally-resolved bioluminescence tomography with sparse a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8062–8080 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-10-8062 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, A. J.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3D multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(14), 3921–3942 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16266–16280 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16266 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.

M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, W. Cong, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for bioluminescence tomography from partial measurement,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11095–11116 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11095 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cong, A.

Cong, A. X.

W. Cong, H. Shen, A. X. Cong, and G. Wang, “Integral equations of the photon fluence rate and flux based on a generalized Delta-Eddington phase function,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, W.

W. Cong, H. Shen, A. X. Cong, and G. Wang, “Integral equations of the photon fluence rate and flux based on a generalized Delta-Eddington phase function,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, W. Cong, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for bioluminescence tomography from partial measurement,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11095–11116 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11095 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, H. Shen, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, and W. Cong, “The first bioluminescence tomography system for simultaneous acquisition of multi-view and multi-spectral data,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 1, 58601 (2006).

G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8211 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
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P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
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H. Zhao, T. C. Doyle, O. Coquoz, F. Kalish, B. W. Rice, and C. H. Contag, “Emission spectra of bioluminescent reporters and interaction with mammalian tissue determine the sensitivity of detection in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 041210 (2005).
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P. R. Contag, I. N. Olomu, D. K. Stevenson, and C. H. Contag, “Bioluminescent indicators in living mammals,” Nat. Med. 4(2), 245–247 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Contag, I. N. Olomu, D. K. Stevenson, and C. H. Contag, “Bioluminescent indicators in living mammals,” Nat. Med. 4(2), 245–247 (1998).
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H. Zhao, T. C. Doyle, O. Coquoz, F. Kalish, B. W. Rice, and C. H. Contag, “Emission spectra of bioluminescent reporters and interaction with mammalian tissue determine the sensitivity of detection in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 041210 (2005).
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M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034018 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

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S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3D multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(14), 3921–3942 (2008).
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M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034018 (2007).
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M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11 Pt 1), 1779–1792 (1995).
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J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
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Doyle, T. C.

H. Zhao, T. C. Doyle, O. Coquoz, F. Kalish, B. W. Rice, and C. H. Contag, “Emission spectra of bioluminescent reporters and interaction with mammalian tissue determine the sensitivity of detection in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 041210 (2005).
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F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
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G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7801 .
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G. Wang, H. Shen, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, and W. Cong, “The first bioluminescence tomography system for simultaneous acquisition of multi-view and multi-spectral data,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 1, 58601 (2006).

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D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
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J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
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P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
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G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
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M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034018 (2007).
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I. Kurose, S. Miura, H. Saito, S. Tada, D. Fukumura, H. Higuchi, and H. Ishii, “Rat Kupffer cell-derived nitric oxide modulates induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell,” Gastroenterology 109(6), 1958–1968 (1995).
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M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11 Pt 1), 1779–1792 (1995).
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Hoffman, E. A.

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D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
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Ishii, H.

I. Kurose, S. Miura, H. Saito, S. Tada, D. Fukumura, H. Higuchi, and H. Ishii, “Rat Kupffer cell-derived nitric oxide modulates induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell,” Gastroenterology 109(6), 1958–1968 (1995).
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D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
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Jiang, H.

Jiang, M.

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P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
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H. Zhao, T. C. Doyle, O. Coquoz, F. Kalish, B. W. Rice, and C. H. Contag, “Emission spectra of bioluminescent reporters and interaction with mammalian tissue determine the sensitivity of detection in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 041210 (2005).
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I. Kurose, S. Miura, H. Saito, S. Tada, D. Fukumura, H. Higuchi, and H. Ishii, “Rat Kupffer cell-derived nitric oxide modulates induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell,” Gastroenterology 109(6), 1958–1968 (1995).
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Leahy, R. M.

S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3D multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(14), 3921–3942 (2008).
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G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
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Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8211 .
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G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
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F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
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Liu, K.

Liu, Y.

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Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8211 .
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G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
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Mao, J.

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G. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, “Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner,” Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

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I. Kurose, S. Miura, H. Saito, S. Tada, D. Fukumura, H. Higuchi, and H. Ishii, “Rat Kupffer cell-derived nitric oxide modulates induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell,” Gastroenterology 109(6), 1958–1968 (1995).
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D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
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P. R. Contag, I. N. Olomu, D. K. Stevenson, and C. H. Contag, “Bioluminescent indicators in living mammals,” Nat. Med. 4(2), 245–247 (1998).
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F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
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P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
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D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
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G. Wang, H. Shen, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, and W. Cong, “The first bioluminescence tomography system for simultaneous acquisition of multi-view and multi-spectral data,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 1, 58601 (2006).

G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
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G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7801 .
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Qu, X.

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Rice, B. W.

H. Zhao, T. C. Doyle, O. Coquoz, F. Kalish, B. W. Rice, and C. H. Contag, “Emission spectra of bioluminescent reporters and interaction with mammalian tissue determine the sensitivity of detection in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 041210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 432–440 (2001).
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Rothbard, J. B.

P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
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M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11 Pt 1), 1779–1792 (1995).
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G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7801 .
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P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
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Stevenson, D. K.

P. R. Contag, I. N. Olomu, D. K. Stevenson, and C. H. Contag, “Bioluminescent indicators in living mammals,” Nat. Med. 4(2), 245–247 (1998).
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Suter, M.

G. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, “Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner,” Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

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I. Kurose, S. Miura, H. Saito, S. Tada, D. Fukumura, H. Higuchi, and H. Ishii, “Rat Kupffer cell-derived nitric oxide modulates induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell,” Gastroenterology 109(6), 1958–1968 (1995).
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Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8211 .
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J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
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G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7801 .
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G. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, “Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner,” Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willmann, J. K.

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
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Wu, J. C.

F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
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Yang, X.

Yu, S. F.

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[CrossRef]

Zhou, T.

M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, W. Cong, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for bioluminescence tomography from partial measurement,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11095–11116 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11095 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Opt.

Circulation

F. Cao, S. Lin, X. Xie, P. Ray, M. Patel, X. Zhang, M. Drukker, S. J. Dylla, A. J. Connolly, X. Chen, I. L. Weissman, S. S. Gambhir, and J. C. Wu, “In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery,” Circulation 113(7), 1005–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Metastasis

D. E. Jenkins, Y. Oei, Y. S. Hornig, S. F. Yu, J. Dusich, T. Purchio, and P. R. Contag, “Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 20(8), 733–744 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Current Medical Imaging Reviews

G. Wang, X. Qian, W. Cong, H. Shen, Y. Li, W. Han, K. Durairaj, M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, J. Tian, Y. Lv, H. Li, and J. Luo, “Recent development in bioluminescence tomography,” Current Medical Imaging Reviews 2(4), 453–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology

I. Kurose, S. Miura, H. Saito, S. Tada, D. Fukumura, H. Higuchi, and H. Ishii, “Rat Kupffer cell-derived nitric oxide modulates induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell,” Gastroenterology 109(6), 1958–1968 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Biomed. Imaging

G. Wang, H. Shen, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, and W. Cong, “The first bioluminescence tomography system for simultaneous acquisition of multi-view and multi-spectral data,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 1, 58601 (2006).

J. Biomed. Opt.

H. Zhao, T. C. Doyle, O. Coquoz, F. Kalish, B. W. Rice, and C. H. Contag, “Emission spectra of bioluminescent reporters and interaction with mammalian tissue determine the sensitivity of detection in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 041210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Cong, H. Shen, A. X. Cong, and G. Wang, “Integral equations of the photon fluence rate and flux based on a generalized Delta-Eddington phase function,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Allard, D. Côté, L. Davidson, J. Dazai, and R. M. Henkelman, “Combined magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging of live mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034018 (2007).
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B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 432–440 (2001).
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J. XRay Sci. Technol.

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, Y. Dai, and C. Qin, “Fast cone-beam CT image reconstruction using GPU hardware,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 16, 225–234 (2008).

Med. Phys.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, “Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(8), 2289–2299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

P. R. Contag, I. N. Olomu, D. K. Stevenson, and C. H. Contag, “Bioluminescent indicators in living mammals,” Nat. Med. 4(2), 245–247 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, L. Larcom, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional bioluminescence tomography with model-based reconstruction,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3996–4000 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-3996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. V. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. B. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6756–6771 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6756 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Cong, K. Durairaj, X. Qian, H. Shen, P. Sinn, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, and M. Henry, “In vivo mouse studies with bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7801–7809 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lv, J. Tian, W. Cong, G. Wang, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, “A multilevel adaptive finite element algorithm for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8211–8223 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8211 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jiang, T. Zhou, J. Cheng, W. Cong, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for bioluminescence tomography from partial measurement,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11095–11116 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11095 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feng, K. Jia, G. Yan, S. Zhu, C. Qin, Y. Lv, and J. Tian, “An optimal permissible source region strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15640–15654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15640 .
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C. Qin, J. Tian, X. Yang, K. Liu, G. Yan, J. Feng, Y. Lv, and M. Xu, “Galerkin-based meshless methods for photon transport in the biological tissue,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20317–20333 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20317 .
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Y. Lu, X. Zhang, A. Douraghy, D. Stout, J. Tian, T. F. Chan, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Source reconstruction for spectrally-resolved bioluminescence tomography with sparse a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8062–8080 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-10-8062 .
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R. Han, J. Liang, X. Qu, Y. Hou, N. Ren, J. Mao, and J. Tian, “A source reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive hp-FEM for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14481–14494 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14481 .
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X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16266–16280 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16266 .
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J. Feng, K. Jia, C. Qin, G. Yan, S. Zhu, X. Zhang, J. Liu, and J. Tian, “Three-dimensional bioluminescence tomography based on Bayesian approach,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16834–16848 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-16834 .
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C. Qin, J. Tian, X. Yang, J. Feng, K. Liu, J. Liu, G. Yan, S. Zhu, and M. Xu, “Adaptive improved element free Galerkin method for quasi- or multi-spectral bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21925–21934 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21925 .
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Phys. Med. Biol.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
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S. Ahn, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, C. A. Bouman, and R. M. Leahy, “Fast iterative image reconstruction methods for fully 3D multispectral bioluminescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(14), 3921–3942 (2008).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

P. A. Wender, E. A. Goun, L. R. Jones, T. H. Pillow, J. B. Rothbard, R. Shinde, and C. H. Contag, “Real-time analysis of uptake and bioactivatable cleavage of luciferin-transporter conjugates in transgenic reporter mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(25), 10340–10345 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology

G. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, “Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner,” Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Other

P. Gill, W. Murray, and M. Wright, “Practical optimization,” (Academic Press, 1981).

C. Kuo, O. Coquoz, D. Stearns, and B. Rice, “Diffuse luminescence tomography of in vivo bioluminescent markers using multi-spectral data” in Proceeding of the 3rd International meeting of the Society (MIT Press, 2004) p. 227.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Our prototype BLT/MicroCT dual modality imaging system. (1) CCD camera. (2) X-ray tube. (3) X-ray detector. (4) Anesthesia machine. (5) Rotation stage. (6) Mouse holder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multi-view overlay images of photographs and luminescent images and the absolute irradiance distribution on the mouse surface. (a) Anterior-posterior view, (b) right lateral view, (c) posterior- anterior view, (d) left lateral view, and (e) the absolute irradiance distribution on the mouse surface after mapping from 2D luminescent data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Four overlay images from bioluminescent images and corresponding photographs of the PC3-Luc cells inoculated to the hepatic lobes of nude mouse. (a) Anterior-posterior, (b) left lateral, (c) posterior-anterior, and (d) right lateral image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of BLI results obtained from Caliper IVIS Kinetic Imaging System and in-house BLT reconstruction results of both heterogeneous and homogeneous BALB/c nude mice tumor-bearing models in vivo. (a) Anterior-posterior BLI acquired by IVIS Kinetic imaging system. (b) The reconstruction result based on heterogeneous tumor model. (c) The reconstruction result is based on homogeneous tumor model. (d) The absolute irradiance distribution on the surface of tumor mouse after mapping from 2D luminescent data (Anterior-posterior). (e) and (f) are the slices in the Z-axis direction of reconstructed tumor center of the (b) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical reconstruction results of implanted luminescent source using the heterogeneous and homogeneous mouse models at the wavelength of 640 nm. (a) and (b) are the reconstruction results in the implanted source heterogeneous and homogeneous mouse models, respectively. (c) and (d) are the amplified images of the reconstructed source and actual source of the (a) and (b), respectively. The blue stick is the actual implanted source, and the tetrahedra near the actual source are the reconstructed source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo reconstructions of total power for different cell numbers were performed with our BLT system based on heterogeneous tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mouse models, and the relationship was extracted between total power and tumor cell number. (a) Total power reconstruction of mice with different number of injected cells, the regions within red ellipse are the reconstructed tumors. (b) The relationship between the total power and tumor cell number in BLT (blue line) and total flux in the same size region of interest with different tumor cells number in BLI (red line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Parameters of the Mouse Organ Regions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Reconstruction Results Based on Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mouse Models

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( D ( x ) Φ ( x ) ) + μ a ( x ) Φ ( x ) = S ( x )   (x Ω ),
Φ ( x ) + 2 ( 1 + R ( x ) ) 1 R ( x ) D ( x ) ( υ ( x ) Φ ( x ) ) = 0 ( x Ω ) ,
Φ ( x ) Φ k ( x ) = i = 1 N ϕ i k ( x ) Ψ i p ( x ) ,
S ( x ) S k ( x ) = i = 1 N s i k ( x ) γ i p ( x ) ,
A k S k P e r = Φ k B ,
min S inf S k p e r S sup Θ ( S k p e r ) = { A k S k p e r Φ k B Λ + λ k η ( S k P e r ) } ,
E = [ 0.0001 ( v + 20 ) t e + 0.0009 ] × ( R d ) × 59.72 5.7 R ,

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