Abstract

A fiber-optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index (RI) and temperature was proposed and demonstrated. It was fabricated by cascading two sections of specialty double cladding (DC) fibers which presented a pair of well-separated resonant spectra dips. The sensing properties of temperature and ambient RI were investigated theoretically based on the coupled mode theory. Experimental results indicated that these two resonant spectra shifts were linearly dependent on the variation of the RI in the range of 1.3333~1.4118 and on the temperature in the range of −10°C~ + 80°C. Such a fiber-optic sensor is simple and easy for mass production and has potential applications for biosensors or chemical sensors.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (4)

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Polymer-Coated Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Simultaneous Monitoring of Soluble Analytes and Temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(4), 340–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, T. Martynkien, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Optical refractometer based on a birefringent Bragg grating written in an H-shaped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian and S. S.-H. Yam, “In-Line Single-Mode Optical Fiber Interferometric Refractive Index Sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(13), 2296–2306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Pang, W. Xiang, H. Guo, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12967–12972 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sens. Actuators. A. 141(2), 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature by Using Dual Long-period Gratings with an Etching Process,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1360–1361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, and M. Dagenais, “Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W Kim,, Y Zhang, K. L Cooper, and A Wang, “Fiber-opitc interferometric immno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett . 42, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zhao, X. F. Yang, M. S. Demokan, and W. Jin, “Simultaneous Temperature and Refractive Index Measurements Using a 3° Slanted Multimode Fiber Bragg Grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 879–883 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 178–182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Kim, F. Shen, X. P. Chen, and A. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on a reflection-mode long-period grating and an intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 3000–3002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform Thininned Fiber Bragg Gratings for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched Long-period Gratings for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 76(12), 3269–3284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 695–696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwadu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-Temperature Sensitivity of Long-Period Gratings in B-Ge Codoped Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Lin, L. Zhang, and I Bennion, “Sampled fibre Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36(2), 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. C. Boucouvalas, “Coaxial Optical Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(5), 1151–1158 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Abi Kaed Bey, S. K.

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sens. Actuators. A. 141(2), 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Neal, D. Giannone, D. J. Webb, D. J. Mapps, and I. Bennion, “Sensing characteristics of a novel two-section long-period grating,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3766–3771 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwadu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-Temperature Sensitivity of Long-Period Gratings in B-Ge Codoped Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T. D. P.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 695–696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

Bennion, I

Bennion, I.

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 178–182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, R. Neal, D. Giannone, D. J. Webb, D. J. Mapps, and I. Bennion, “Sensing characteristics of a novel two-section long-period grating,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3766–3771 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 695–696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwadu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-Temperature Sensitivity of Long-Period Gratings in B-Ge Codoped Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, W. E.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boucouvalas, A. C.

A. C. Boucouvalas, “Coaxial Optical Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(5), 1151–1158 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform Thininned Fiber Bragg Gratings for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Xiang, H. Guo, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12967–12972 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Polymer-Coated Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Simultaneous Monitoring of Soluble Analytes and Temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(4), 340–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Chen, X. P.

Chen, Z.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Xiang, H. Guo, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12967–12972 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, and M. Dagenais, “Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contessa, L.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L

D. W Kim,, Y Zhang, K. L Cooper, and A Wang, “Fiber-opitc interferometric immno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett . 42, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36(2), 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform Thininned Fiber Bragg Gratings for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform Thininned Fiber Bragg Gratings for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, and M. Dagenais, “Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLisa, M. P.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demokan, M. S.

Ding, J. F.

J. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature by Using Dual Long-period Gratings with an Etching Process,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1360–1361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched Long-period Gratings for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frangois, P. L.

Frazão, O.

Giannone, D.

Giordano, M

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform Thininned Fiber Bragg Gratings for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sens. Actuators. A. 141(2), 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, G

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

Gwadu, B.

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwadu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-Temperature Sensitivity of Long-Period Gratings in B-Ge Codoped Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gwandu, B. A. L.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 695–696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Lin, L. Zhang, and I Bennion, “Sampled fibre Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

J. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature by Using Dual Long-period Gratings with an Etching Process,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1360–1361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched Long-period Gratings for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform Thininned Fiber Bragg Gratings for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

C. L. Zhao, X. F. Yang, M. S. Demokan, and W. Jin, “Simultaneous Temperature and Refractive Index Measurements Using a 3° Slanted Multimode Fiber Bragg Grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 879–883 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36(2), 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

Kim,, D. W

D. W Kim,, Y Zhang, K. L Cooper, and A Wang, “Fiber-opitc interferometric immno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett . 42, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36(2), 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. C.

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sens. Actuators. A. 141(2), 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, and M. Dagenais, “Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. B.

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Polymer-Coated Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Simultaneous Monitoring of Soluble Analytes and Temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(4), 340–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X. H.

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mapps, D. J.

Martynkien, T.

Men, L.

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Polymer-Coated Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Simultaneous Monitoring of Soluble Analytes and Temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(4), 340–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W. C.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36(2), 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

Pang, F.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Xiang, H. Guo, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12967–12972 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilevar, S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilla, P.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, and M. Dagenais, “Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Shao, L. Y.

J. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature by Using Dual Long-period Gratings with an Etching Process,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1360–1361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched Long-period Gratings for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, F.

Shiloach, M.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 695–696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwadu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-Temperature Sensitivity of Long-Period Gratings in B-Ge Codoped Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X. W.

Sirkis, J. S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sens. Actuators. A. 141(2), 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36(2), 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Tu, D. S.

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

Vassallo, C.

Vusano, A

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A

D. W Kim,, Y Zhang, K. L Cooper, and A Wang, “Fiber-opitc interferometric immno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett . 42, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, L. W.

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Xiang, H. Guo, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12967–12972 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, D. J.

Wojcik, J.

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 76(12), 3269–3284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, W.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Xiang, H. Guo, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12967–12972 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yam, S. S.-H.

Yan, J.

J. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature by Using Dual Long-period Gratings with an Etching Process,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1360–1361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. F.

Zeng, X.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Xiang, H. Guo, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Special optical fiber for temperature sensing based on cladding-mode resonance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12967–12972 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, A. P.

J. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature by Using Dual Long-period Gratings with an Etching Process,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1360–1361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched Long-period Gratings for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 695–696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y

D. W Kim,, Y Zhang, K. L Cooper, and A Wang, “Fiber-opitc interferometric immno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett . 42, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, C. L.

Zhou, K. M.

Anal. Chem. (2)

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 76(12), 3269–3284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett (1)

D. W Kim,, Y Zhang, K. L Cooper, and A Wang, “Fiber-opitc interferometric immno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett . 42, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38(14), 695–696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform Thininned Fiber Bragg Gratings for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S Campopiano, A Cutolo, M Giordano, G Guerra, and A Vusano, “Optical Chemo-Sensor Based on Long Period Gratings Coated With delta Form Syndiotactic Polystyrene,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713–1715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. W. Wang, M. Zhang, D. S. Tu, X. H. Mao, and Y. B. Liao, “Long-period Grating Relative Humidity Sensor with Hydrogel Coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 880–882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched Long-period Gratings for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwadu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-Temperature Sensitivity of Long-Period Gratings in B-Ge Codoped Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “Temperature-Insensitivity Bending Sensor Based on Cladding-Mode Resonance of Special Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 76–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, and M. Dagenais, “Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 178–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

P. Lu, L. Men, and Q. Chen, “Polymer-Coated Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Simultaneous Monitoring of Soluble Analytes and Temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(4), 340–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature by Using Dual Long-period Gratings with an Etching Process,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1360–1361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36(2), 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators. A. (1)

S. K. Abi Kaed Bey, C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sens. Actuators. A. 141(2), 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. Caucheteur, F. Lhomme, K. Chah, M. Blondel, and P. Megret, “Use of tilted bragg gratings to simultaneously measure sugar concentration and temperature during the production process of suger, ” in Proc. OFS 2005, 5855, 451-454 (2005).

K. Kawano, and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis: Solving Maxwell's Equations and the Schrodinger Equation, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001), ISBNs: 0–471–40634–1 (Hardback); 0–471–22160–0.

F. Pang, H. H. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Q. Liu, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on cladding-mode resonance,” in Proc. OFS 2009, 7503, 75036W-4 (2009).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the in-series DC fiber sensor

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index profile of the DC fibers (a) B-doped DC fiber and (b) F-doped DC fiber

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode coupling coefficient at the input point of SMF-DC fibers (a) for B-doped DC fiber- B, insert drawing: comparison between SMF and sum of DC fiber LP09 and LP010 and (b) for F-doped DC fiber-A, insert drawing: comparison between SMF and sum of DC fiber LP05 and LP06

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temperature sensing properties of B-doped DC fiber, insert drawing: normalized propagation constant response to temperature (b) RI sensing properties of B-doped DC fiber, insert drawing: normalized propagation constant response to ambient RI

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for characterizing sensing properties of the in-series DC fibers

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Resonant spectral of the DC fiber-A (dash line), the DC fiber-B (dash dot line) and the in-series DC fibers (solid line). The inset showed the comparison between the superposition spectrum (black line) and the tested result (red line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

With changes of the ambient RI (a) the measured transmission spectra of the in-series DC fibers and (b)wavelength shifts of dip ‘A’ (triangle points) and dip ‘B’ (circular points)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Evanescent filed comparison of tube mode L P 05 T u b e of DC fiber-A with tube mode L P 09 T u b e of DC fiber-B.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

With changes of temperature (a) the measured transmission spectra of the in-series DC fibers and (b) wavelength shifts of dip ‘A’ (triangle points) and dip ‘B’ (circular points)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Theoretical simulation of the temperature sensitivity of B-doped DC fiber with different ambient RI

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = c c n m e j ϕ n m E L P n m D C
c c n m 2 = | ( E L P n m D C ) * E d x d y | 2 | E L P n m D C | 2 d x d y | E | 2 d x d y
β 01 r o d = β 0 m t u b e
λ r e s , i = f i [ n , T ] ,
Δ λ r e s , i = f i n Δ n + f i T Δ T + ( f i n × d n d T ) Δ T ,
( Δ n + d n d T Δ T Δ T ) = [ ( K n , A K T , A K n , B K T , B ) ] 1 ( Δ λ r e s , A Δ λ r e s , B ) ,
d n d T = K T , B Δ λ r e s , A K T , A Δ λ r e s , B K n , B Δ λ r e s , A + K n , A Δ λ r e s , B .
( Δ n ' Δ T ) = 1 11 .5697 [ 0.145 0.013 153.154 93.522 ] ( Δ λ r e s , A Δ λ r e s , B ) .

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