Abstract

Recent progress in sub-laser-cycle gating of high-order harmonic generation promises to push the limits on optical pulse durations below the atomic unit of time, 24 as, which corresponds to a bandwidth broader than 75 eV. However, the available techniques for attosecond pulse measurement are valid only for narrow-bandwidth spectra, due to one of the key approximations made in the phase retrieval. Here we report a new technique for characterizing attosecond pulses, whereby the spectral phase of the attosecond pulse is extracted from the oscillation component with the dressing laser frequency in the photoelectron spectrogram. This technique, termed PROOF (Phase Retrieval by Omega Oscillation Filtering), can be applied to characterizing attosecond pulses with ultrabroad bandwidths.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 339–360 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. J. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), A120–A132 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), A120–A132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chini, M.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corner, L.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimauro, L. F.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, F.

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

Khan, S. D.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosik, E. M.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seyfried, V.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strehle, M.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, M. Chini, X. Feng, C. Yun, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, and Z. Chang, “Extreme ultraviolet supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3337–3339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, A. S.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, C.

Zhao, K.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 339–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

G. Sansone, F. Ferrari, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Towards atomic unit pulse duration by polarization-controlled few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(13), 134005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of PROOF. (a) The isolated attosecond pulse photoionizes electrons to continuum states. Those continuum states separated by the laser central frequency ω L are coupled by the dressing laser, leading to the characteristic oscillation of the photoelectron signal with delay. (b) Fourier transform amplitude of the signal from one electron energy in (a). Peaks are found at oscillation frequencies of zero (red line), ω L (black line), and 2 ω L (red line). The ω L component is selected using a filter. (c) Spectrogram obtained by inverse Fourier transform of the filtered ω L component of the oscillation, from which the phase angle α ( v ) can be extracted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extraction of the modulation amplitude U 2 ( ω v ) ( v E 0 / ω L ) γ ( v ) and the phase angle α ( v ) from the spectrogram for a nearly transform-limited 95 as pulse (a-c) and a strongly chirped 300 as attosecond pulse (d-f). (a, d) (left) Laser-assisted photoemission spectrogram and (right) attosecond pulse power spectrum. (b, e) (left) Filtered ω L oscillation and (right) extracted modulation amplitude. (c, f) (left) Filtered ω L oscillation, normalized to the peak signal at each electron energy and (right) extracted α ( v ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieval of a narrow-bandwidth attosecond pulse with PROOF. (a) Experimentally-obtained laser-assisted photoemission spectrogram. (b) (left) Filtered ω L oscillation from the trace in (a), normalized to the peak signal at each electron energy and (right) extracted phase angle α ( v ) . (c) Photoelectron spectrum (shaded) and retrieved phase from PROOF (blue triangles) and FROG-CRAB (black line). Determination of the error bars is discussed in section 3.3 (d) Retrieved pulses from PROOF (blue dash, 170 as pulse duration) and FROG-CRAB (black solid, 167 as pulse duration).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieval of a broad-bandwidth chirped attosecond pulse with PROOF. (a) Simulated laser-assisted photoemission spectrogram. (b) (left) Filtered ω L oscillation from the trace in (a), normalized to the peak signal at each electron energy and (right) extracted phase angle α ( v ) . (c) Photoelectron spectrum (shaded) and retrieved phase from PROOF (blue triangles) and FROG-CRAB (red circles), compared with the actual phase (black line). (d) Retrieved pulses from PROOF (blue dash, 73 as pulse duration) and FROG-CRAB (red dash-dot, 26 as pulse duration), compared with the actual pulse (black solid, 73 as pulse duration).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieval of a broad-bandwidth nearly transform-limited attosecond pulse with PROOF. (a) Simulated laser-assisted photoemission spectrogram. (b) (left) Filtered ω L oscillation from the trace in (a), normalized to the peak signal at each electron energy and (right) extracted phase angle α ( v ) . (c) Photoelectron spectrum (shaded) and retrieved phase from PROOF (blue triangles) and FROG-CRAB (red circles), compared with the actual phase (black line). (d) Retrieved pulses from PROOF (blue dash, 31 as pulse duration) and FROG-CRAB (red dash-dot, 25 as pulse duration), compared with the actual pulse (black solid, 31 as pulse duration).

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε X ( t ) = U ( ω ) e i ϕ ( ω ) e i ω t d ω .
b ( v , τ d ) = i ε X ( t τ ) d [ v + A ( t ) ] e i φ ( t ) e i ( v 2 / 2 + I p ) t d t ,
φ ( t ) = t [ v A ( t ' ) + A 2 ( t ' ) / 2 ] d t ' ,
φ ( t ) = t E 0 2 ( t ) 4 ω L 2 d t + v E 0 2 ω L 2 cos ( ω L t ) E 0 2 8 ω L 3 sin ( 2 ω L t ) ,
φ ( t ) v E 0 2 ω L 2 cos ( ω L t ) = v E 0 2 ω L 2 ( e i ω L t + e i ω L t ) .
e i φ ( t ) 1 + i φ ( t ) .
b ( v , τ d ) ε X ( t τ ) [ 1 + i v E 0 2 ω L 2 ( e i ω L t + e i ω L t ) ] e i ( v 2 / 2 + I p ) t d t .
b ( v , τ d ) e i ω v τ d { U ( ω v ) e i ϕ ( ω v ) + i v E 0 2 ω L 2 [ U ( ω v + ω L ) e i ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) e i ω L τ d + U ( ω v ω L ) e i ϕ ( ω v ω L ) e i ω L τ d ] } ,
I ω L = i v E 0 2 ω L [ U ( ω v ) U ( ω v + ω L ) e i [ ϕ ( ω v ) ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ] e i ω L τ d + U ( ω v ) U ( ω v + ω L ) e i [ ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ϕ ( ω v ) e i ω L τ d + U ( ω v ) U ( ω v ω L ) e i [ ϕ ( ω v ) ϕ ( ω v ω L ) e i ω L τ d U ( ω v ) U ( ω v ω L ) e i [ ϕ ( ω v ω L ) ϕ ( ω v ) e i ω L τ d ] .
I ω L ( v , τ d ) = v E 0 ω L U ( ω v ) { U ( ω v + ω L ) sin [ ω L τ d + ϕ ( ω v ) ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ] U ( ω v ω L ) sin [ ω L τ d + ϕ ( ω v ω L ) ϕ ( ω v ) ] } ,
I ω L ( v , τ d ) = U 2 ( ω v ) v E 0 ω L γ ( v ) sin ( ω L τ d + α ) ,
γ ( v ) = I ( ω v + ω L ) I ( ω v ) + I ( ω v ω L ) I ( ω v ) 2 I ( ω v + ω L ) I ( ω v ω L ) I ( ω v ) cos [ ϕ ( ω v ω L ) ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ]
tan [ α ( v ) ] = I ( ω v + ω L ) sin [ ϕ ( ω v ) ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ] I ( ω v + ω L ) sin [ ϕ ( ω v ω L ) ϕ ( ω v ) ] I ( ω v + ω L ) cos [ ϕ ( ω v ) ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ] I ( ω v + ω L ) cos [ ϕ ( ω v ω L ) ϕ ( ω v ) ]
R [ ϕ ( ω v ) ] = ( ω v I ( ω v ) [ α ( v ) α ' ( v ) ] 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
α ' ( v ) = tan 1 [ I ( ω v + ω L ) sin [ ϕ ( ω v ) ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ] I ( ω v + ω L ) sin [ ϕ ( ω v ω L ) ϕ ( ω v ) ] I ( ω v + ω L ) cos [ ϕ ( ω v ) ϕ ( ω v + ω L ) ] I ( ω v + ω L ) cos [ ϕ ( ω v ω L ) ϕ ( ω v ) ] ]

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