Abstract

The fabrication of visible wavelength vertically emitting distributed feedback (DFB) lasers with a subwavelength grating fabricated by a replica molding process and an active polymer layer printed by a horizontal dipping process is reported. The combined techniques enable the organic DFB laser to be uniformly fabricated over large surface areas upon a flexible plastic substrate, with an approach that is compatible with roll-based manufacturing. Using a fixed grating period and depth, DFB laser output wavelength is controlled over a 35 nm range through manipulation of the waveguide layer thickness, which is controlled by the speed of the horizontal dipping process. We also demonstrate that the active area of the structure may be photolithographically patterned to create dense arrays of discrete DFB lasers.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (10)

G. Morthier, W. D’Oosterlinck, and K. Huybrechts, “All-optical flip-flops based on DFB laser diodes and DFB-arrays,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 385–389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chenais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Xue, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. Kaspi, “Widely tunable distributed-feedback lasers with chirped gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, H. Kang, J. Li, and M. Gu, “Use of radially polarized beams in three-dimensional photonic crystal fabrication with the two-photon polymerization method,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1918–1920 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. García-Revilla, M. Zayac, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, D. Levy, and J. Fernández, “1Low threshold random lasing in dye-doped silica nano powders,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13202–13215 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Donisi, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and G. Assanto, “Distributed feedback grating in liquid crystal waveguide: a novel approach,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5251–5256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. García-Moreno, A. Costela, M. Pintado-Sierra, V. Martín, and R. Sastre, “Enhanced laser action of Perylene-Red doped polymeric materials,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12777–12784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Park and M. Y. Han, “Organic light-emitting devices fabricated using a premetered coating process,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21362–21369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, G. Violakis, and S. Pissadakis, “Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by direct laser interference ablation,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3968–3973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

B. T. Cunningham and L. Laing, “Microplate-based, label-free detection of biomolecular interactions: applications in proteomics,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(3), 271–281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Single mode optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(2), 696–701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tsutsumi and M. Yamamoto, “Threshold reduction of a tunable organic laser using effective energy transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(5), 842–845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Very high-quality distributed Bragg reflectors for organic lasing applications by reactive electron-beam deposition,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1951–1956 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

areP. Del Carro, A. Camposeo, R. Stabile, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Near-infrared imprinted distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, A. Fujihara, and D. Hayashi, “Tunable distributed feedback lasing with a threshold in the nanojoule range in an organic guest-host polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5748–5751 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Emission properties of printed organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 260–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Wright, E. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Dye-doped organic distributed-feedback lasers with index and surface gratings: the role of pump polarization and molecular orientation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(5), 944–950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

B. J. Scott, G. Wirnsberger, M. D. McGehee, B. F. Chmelka, and G. D. Stucky, “Dye-Doped Mesostructured Silica as a Distributed Feedback Laser Fabricated by Soft Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1231–1234 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. P. Yaney, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, and R. L. Farrow, “Distributed-feedback dye laser for picosecond ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(3), 1296–1305 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, “Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 163–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth lasing action in organic semiconductor microcavities,” Science 279(5350), 553–555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. M. Gale, P. Ranson, and M. Denariez-Roberge, “Coherent spectroscopy with a distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 44(4), 221–233 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

Andrew, P.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

Assanto, G.

Bachtold, W.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baird, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balda, R.

Barbarella, G.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Emission properties of printed organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 260–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bastian, G.

Becker, E.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benstem, T.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

Block, I. D.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, E.

Brueck, S. R. J.

L. Xue, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. Kaspi, “Widely tunable distributed-feedback lasers with chirped gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth lasing action in organic semiconductor microcavities,” Science 279(5350), 553–555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caimi, D.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Camposeo, A.

areP. Del Carro, A. Camposeo, R. Stabile, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Near-infrared imprinted distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Very high-quality distributed Bragg reflectors for organic lasing applications by reactive electron-beam deposition,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1951–1956 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castex, M.-C.

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chenais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. L.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chenais, S.

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chenais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chmelka, B. F.

B. J. Scott, G. Wirnsberger, M. D. McGehee, B. F. Chmelka, and G. D. Stucky, “Dye-Doped Mesostructured Silica as a Distributed Feedback Laser Fabricated by Soft Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1231–1234 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Very high-quality distributed Bragg reflectors for organic lasing applications by reactive electron-beam deposition,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1951–1956 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

areP. Del Carro, A. Camposeo, R. Stabile, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Near-infrared imprinted distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Emission properties of printed organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 260–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

Cunningham, B. T.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Large-area submicron replica molding of porous low-k dielectric films and application to photonic crystal biosensor fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(4), 603–608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham and L. Laing, “Microplate-based, label-free detection of biomolecular interactions: applications in proteomics,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(3), 271–281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

d’Alessandro, A.

D’Oosterlinck, W.

G. Morthier, W. D’Oosterlinck, and K. Huybrechts, “All-optical flip-flops based on DFB laser diodes and DFB-arrays,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 385–389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Del Carro, P.

areP. Del Carro, A. Camposeo, R. Stabile, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Near-infrared imprinted distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Very high-quality distributed Bragg reflectors for organic lasing applications by reactive electron-beam deposition,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1951–1956 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

deMello, J. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denariez-Roberge, M.

G. M. Gale, P. Ranson, and M. Denariez-Roberge, “Coherent spectroscopy with a distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 44(4), 221–233 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dobbertin, T.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donisi, D.

Emery, T.

Erni, D.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. L.

P. P. Yaney, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, and R. L. Farrow, “Distributed-feedback dye laser for picosecond ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(3), 1296–1305 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Favaretto, L.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Emission properties of printed organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 260–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

Fine, E.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forberich, K.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forget, S.

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chenais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth lasing action in organic semiconductor microcavities,” Science 279(5350), 553–555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujihara, A.

Gale, G. M.

G. M. Gale, P. Ranson, and M. Denariez-Roberge, “Coherent spectroscopy with a distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 44(4), 221–233 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Moreno, I.

García-Revilla, S.

Gartner, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ge, C.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genick, C.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstenmaier, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gigli, G.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Emission properties of printed organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 260–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Han, M. Y.

Harbers, R.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, T. G.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, “Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 163–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haug, V.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haugeneder, A.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, D.

Heeger, A. J.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hilmer, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huybrechts, K.

G. Morthier, W. D’Oosterlinck, and K. Huybrechts, “All-optical flip-flops based on DFB laser diodes and DFB-arrays,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 385–389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Irfan, U.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishow, E.

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chenais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

Johannes, H.-H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kallinger, C.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

Karnutsch, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaspi, R.

L. Xue, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. Kaspi, “Widely tunable distributed-feedback lasers with chirped gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth lasing action in organic semiconductor microcavities,” Science 279(5350), 553–555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kliner, D. A. V.

P. P. Yaney, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, and R. L. Farrow, “Distributed-feedback dye laser for picosecond ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(3), 1296–1305 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth lasing action in organic semiconductor microcavities,” Science 279(5350), 553–555 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, “Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(4), 465–475 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroger, M.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laing, L.

B. T. Cunningham and L. Laing, “Microplate-based, label-free detection of biomolecular interactions: applications in proteomics,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(3), 271–281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, G.

Ledochowitsch, P.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, G. Violakis, and S. Pissadakis, “Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by direct laser interference ablation,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3968–3973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levy, D.

Li, J.

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
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M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
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M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Mahrt, R. F.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Mathias, P. C.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

B. J. Scott, G. Wirnsberger, M. D. McGehee, B. F. Chmelka, and G. D. Stucky, “Dye-Doped Mesostructured Silica as a Distributed Feedback Laser Fabricated by Soft Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1231–1234 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McKinnie, I. T.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, “Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 163–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mednick, S. R.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mele, E.

Miyamoto, S.

Moll, N.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
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E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
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Müllen, K.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Park, B.

Perner, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
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areP. Del Carro, A. Camposeo, R. Stabile, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Near-infrared imprinted distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201105 (2006).
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L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Very high-quality distributed Bragg reflectors for organic lasing applications by reactive electron-beam deposition,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1951–1956 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Pisignano, D.

areP. Del Carro, A. Camposeo, R. Stabile, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Near-infrared imprinted distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201105 (2006).
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L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Very high-quality distributed Bragg reflectors for organic lasing applications by reactive electron-beam deposition,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1951–1956 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Emission properties of printed organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 260–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
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Psaltis, D.

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H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chenais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033305 (2009).
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T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
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G. M. Gale, P. Ranson, and M. Denariez-Roberge, “Coherent spectroscopy with a distributed feedback dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 44(4), 221–233 (1987).
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[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
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M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sastre, R.

Scherer, A.

Scherf, U.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, P. E.

P. P. Yaney, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, and R. L. Farrow, “Distributed-feedback dye laser for picosecond ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(3), 1296–1305 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, S.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, B. J.

B. J. Scott, G. Wirnsberger, M. D. McGehee, B. F. Chmelka, and G. D. Stucky, “Dye-Doped Mesostructured Silica as a Distributed Feedback Laser Fabricated by Soft Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1231–1234 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siove, A.

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chenais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J. A. N. T.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stabile, R.

areP. Del Carro, A. Camposeo, R. Stabile, E. Mele, L. Persano, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Near-infrared imprinted distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

R. Harbers, P. Strasser, D. Caimi, R. F. Mahrt, N. Moll, B. J. Offrein, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and U. Scherf, “Enhanced feedback in organic photonic-crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stroisch, M.

Stucky, G. D.

B. J. Scott, G. Wirnsberger, M. D. McGehee, B. F. Chmelka, and G. D. Stucky, “Dye-Doped Mesostructured Silica as a Distributed Feedback Laser Fabricated by Soft Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1231–1234 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tong, M.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

Turnbull, G. A.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasa, N. J.

Violakis, G.

Visconti, P.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, E. Mele, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Emission properties of printed organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 260–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Gigli, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, “Oligomer-based organic distributed feedback lasers by room-temperature nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2545–2547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, “Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 163–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, S. Schulz, B. Lin, C. Baird, J. Gerstenmaier, C. Genick, F. Wang, E. Fine, and L. Laing, “Label-free assays on the BIND system,” J. Biomol. Screen. 9(6), 481–490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kroger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, “Ultrawide tuning range in doped organic solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1886–1888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wirnsberger, G.

B. J. Scott, G. Wirnsberger, M. D. McGehee, B. F. Chmelka, and G. D. Stucky, “Dye-Doped Mesostructured Silica as a Distributed Feedback Laser Fabricated by Soft Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1231–1234 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

M. Reufer, S. Riechel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “Low-threshold polymeric distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3262–3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “A Flexible Conjugated Polymer Laser,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 920–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, T.

Woolhouse, A. D.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. McKinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, “Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 163–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D.

Xia, R.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission Characteristics and Performance Comparison of Polyfluorene Lasers with One- and Two-Dimensional Distributed Feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xue, L.

L. Xue, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. Kaspi, “Widely tunable distributed-feedback lasers with chirped gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Yaney, P. P.

P. P. Yaney, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, and R. L. Farrow, “Distributed-feedback dye laser for picosecond ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(3), 1296–1305 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, J. D.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zayac, M.

Zhang, W.

C. Ge, M. Lu, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the DFB laser structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Process flow diagram for the solid state organic DFB laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the DFB laser detection instrumentation setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the translation speed of the carrier stage and the guidance layer thickness: the translation speed ranges from 0.01cm/s to 0.8cm/s and the corresponding film thickness ranges from 234nm to ~3.1µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stimulated emission characteristics of devices with various guidance layer thicknesses (tw). The fabricated lasers exhibit a linewidth of Δ λ = 0.15 nm, threshold pump fluence ~0.169 mJ-cm–2 at λ = 532 nm. The top left inset picture shows multiple modes emission when the guidance layer thickness is ~750 µm. The bottom left inset plot shows the relationship between the laser emission wavelength and the guidance layer thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial distribution of the laser emission wavelength. The top picture illustrates a map of laser emission wavelength over a 5cm × 2 cm area. For such an area, the laser emission varies within a range of 3.15nm. The bottom picture shows a zoomed-in perspective of the lasing wavelength distribution within a single grid with a 2mm × 2 mm area, where the laser emission ranges from 586.41nm to 586.89nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Emission characteristics of a patterned DFB laser. (a) The stimulated emission image of a patterned DFB laser: The black part with a pattern “中” indicates the dumb region where the gain layer has been removed. So the laser does not lase there, while the laser works normally in the complementary region. The spatial resolution of the image is 12.5µm, and the feature size of the pattern is 125 µm. (b) The spatial distribution of the stimulated emission wavelength cross a horizontal line in (a): The variation of the lasing emission cross the horizontal line is within a 0.14 nm range, while the lasing wavelength difference between adjacent spots is less than 0.01 nm.

Equations (1)

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t w = 1.34 ( μ U σ ) 2 / 3 · R d .

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