Abstract

We report on a novel type of Bi-doped crystal that exhibits ultrabroadband photoluminescence in the near infrared (NIR). Emission centers can be generated and degenerated reversibly by annealing the material in CO atmosphere and air, respectively, indicating that emission is related to the presence of Bi-species in low valence states. Correlating static and dynamic excitation and emission data with the size and charge of available lattice sites suggests that two types of Bi0-species, each located on one of the two available Ba2+ lattice sites, are responsible for NIR photoemission. This is further confirmed by the absence of NIR emission in polycrystalline Ca2P2O7:Bi and Sr2P2O7:Bi. Excitation is assigned to transitions between the doubly degenerated ground state 4S3/2 and the degenerated excited levels 2D3/2, 2D5/2 and 2P1/2, respectively. NIR emission is attributed to 2D3/24S3/2. The NIR emission center can coexist with Bi2+ species. Then, also Bi2+ is accommodated on one of the two Ba2+-sites. Energy transfer between Bi2+ ions occurs within a critical distance of 25.9 Å.

© 2010 OSA

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  53. M. Chou and T. Cool, “Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes: New transitions in arsenic, bismuth, gallium, germanium, mercury, indium, lead, antimony, and thallium,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1055–1061 (1976).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. Fujimoto, “Local structure of the infrared bismuth luminescent center in bismuth-doped silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 581–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, I. Shulman, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Absorption and emission properties of Bi-doped Mg-Al-Si oxide glass system,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 801–805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Compositional optimization of bismuth-doped yttria–alumina–silica glass,” Opt. Mater. 32(2), 368–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Dvoirin, V. Mashinsky, O. Medvedkov, A. Umnikov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped telecommunication fibres for lasers and amplifiers in the 1400-1500-nm region,” Quantum Electron. 39(6), 583–584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, P. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Li, L. Zheng, F. Wu, Y. Yang, Q. Yang, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and near-infrared broadband luminescence of Bi-doped SrB4O7 glasses and crystalline materials,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13554–13560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. Li, L. Zheng, Y. Yang, F. Wu, H. Xia, and J. Xu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence in γ-irradiated Bi-doped α-BaB(2)O(4) single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2504–2506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Razdobreev, V. Y. Ivanov, L. Bigot, M. Godlewski, and E. F. Kustov, “Optically detected magnetic resonance in bismuth-doped silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2691–2693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bi2+-doped strontium borates for white-light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2885–2887 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Quimby, R. L. Shubochkin, and T. F. Morse, “High quantum efficiency of near-infrared emission in bismuth doped AlGeP-silica fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3181–3183 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21169–21178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Origin of broadband near-infrared luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1488–1490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic study of optical centers formed in Bi-, Pb-, Sb-, Sn-, Te-, and In-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2131–2133 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and K. N. Boldyrev, “Near-infrared luminescence of RbPb2Cl5:Bi crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2182–2184 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu and Y. Shen, “Investigation on the spectral characteristics of bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 223–228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Luminescence properties of bismuth-doped lime silicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), L5–L8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dong, X. Xiao, J. Ren, J. Ruan, X. Liu, J. Qiu, C. Lin, H. Tao, and X. Zhao, “Broadband infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(5), 1891–1894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohkura, Y. Fujimoto, M. Nakatsuka, and S. Young-Seok, “Local structures of bismuth ion in bismuth-doped silica glasses analyzed using Bi LIII X-Ray absorption fine structure,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(11), 3596–3600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth-doped zinc aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics with ultra-broadband infrared luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 29(5), 556–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Peng, Z. Pei, G. Hong, and Q. Su, “The reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in BaMgSiO4:Eu prepared in air and the luminescence of BaMgSiO4: Eu2+ phosphor,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(5), 1202–1205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 3B), L279–L281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Tanabe and X. Feng, “Temperature variation of near-infrared emission from Cr4+ in aluminate glass for broadband telecommunication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 818–820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Barbier and J. Echard, “A new refinement of α-Sr2P2O7,” Acta Crystallogr. C 54(12), IUC9800070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Duffy, “Redox equilibria in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 45–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Kumada, N. Takahashi, N. Kinomura, and A. W. Sleight, “Preparation and crystal structure of a new lithium bismuth oxide: LiBiO3,” J. Solid State Chem. 126(1), 121–126 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. ElBelghitti, A. Elmarzouki, A. Boukhari, and E. M. Holt, “σ-dibarium pyrophosphate,” Acta Crystallogr. C 51(8), 1478–1480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. Boudin, A. Grandin, M. Borel, A. Leclaire, and B. Raveau, “Redetermination of the β-Ca2P207 structure,” Acta Crystallogr. C 49(12), 2062 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Goovaerts, S. Nistor, and D. Schoemaker, “Electron-spin-resonance and optical study of the Bi0(6p3) center in KCl,” Phys. Rev. B 42(7), 3810–3817 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. Drosch and G. Gerber, “Optically pumped cw molecular bismuth laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 77(1), 123–130 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu-hui and L. Jian-bang, “A hollow cathode bismuth ion laser,” Appl. Phys. B 29(4), 291–292 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976

M. Chou and T. Cool, “Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes: New transitions in arsenic, bismuth, gallium, germanium, mercury, indium, lead, antimony, and thallium,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1055–1061 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr. A 32(5), 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer in oxidic phosphors,” Philips Res. Rep. 24, 131–144 (1969).

Akada, T.

Alfano, R. R.

Arai, Y.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, J.

J. Barbier and J. Echard, “A new refinement of α-Sr2P2O7,” Acta Crystallogr. C 54(12), IUC9800070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

I. Razdobreev, V. Y. Ivanov, L. Bigot, M. Godlewski, and E. F. Kustov, “Optically detected magnetic resonance in bismuth-doped silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2691–2693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Ohkura, Y. Fujimoto, M. Nakatsuka, and S. Young-Seok, “Local structures of bismuth ion in bismuth-doped silica glasses analyzed using Bi LIII X-Ray absorption fine structure,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(11), 3596–3600 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
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M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
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M. Peng, Z. Pei, G. Hong, and Q. Su, “The reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in BaMgSiO4:Eu prepared in air and the luminescence of BaMgSiO4: Eu2+ phosphor,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(5), 1202–1205 (2003).
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Petricevic, V.

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J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern of Ba03A and corresponding Rietveld refining results. The inset shows the coordination environment of a Ba(1)- (inset A) and Ba (2)-site (inset B). Inset (C) schematically shows stacking of the two Ba-layers in a unit cell. P and O atoms are omitted for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A: NIR emission spectra of Ba10A excited at 586nm, 723 nm (dotted lines: Gaussian peak fits), 838nm and 924nm, respectively, and dependence of NIR emission intensity on nominal bismuth concentration (inset). B: Uncorrected excitation spectra of Ba10A for emission at 1100 and 1150 nm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A: Emission (λex = 286, 388 and 618 nm) and excitation spectra (λem = 716 and 733 nm) of Bi2+ in Ba10B; and excitation spectra (λem = 716 nm) of samples Ba01B, Ba30B and Ba50B (curves I, II and III respectively). Insets show a zoom at the spectral regions 370-400nm (left) and 600-630nm (right). B: Lifetime and relative fluorescence intensity of B-type Ba2(1-x)P2O7: 2xBi (x = 0.001, 0.003, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time resolved emission (λex = 286 nm) spectra of Ba10B (labels: delay time).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission and excitation spectra of Ca03A (1: λex = 465nm; 3: λem = 653nm) and Sr03A (2: λex = 450nm; 4: λem = 702nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission spectra of Ba03A, Ba03B, Ba03C and Ba03D under 723 nm excitation. The curve of Ba03D is shifted vertically for clarity.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relative difference in ionic radii (Dr, %) between matrix cations and various Bi species (data on effective ionic radii taken from Refs.44, 45).

Equations (3)

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R c = 6 V / ( π x c N ) 3
R c 6 = 3 × 10 12 × f E 4 f ( E ) F ( E ) d E
D r = 100 × [ R m ( C N ) R d ( C N ) ] / R m ( C N )

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