Abstract

We demonstrate the first self-coherent detection of 10 Gbit/s BPSK signals based on narrow-band amplification of the optical carrier by means of Stimulated Brillouin effect in a common fiber. We found that this technique is very effective only if it is combined with proper line coding and high-pass electrical filtering at the receiver. In this case we obtain OSNR-performance close to the ideal coherent receiver.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. S. Tsukamoto, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent Demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK Signals with 16-GHz Spacing after 200-km Transmission,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper PDP29, San Diego, 2005.
  2. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, “PSK self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier for multibit/symbol transmission with inverse-RZ signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1334–1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Fice, A. J. Seeds, B. J. Pugh, J. M. Heaton, and S. J. Clements, “Homodyne Coherent Receiver with Phase Locking to Orthogonal-Polarisation Pilot Carrier by Optical Injection Phase Lock Loop, ” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OTuG1, San Diego, 2009.
  5. B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “120 Gbit/s over 500-km Using Single-Band Polarization-Multiplexed Self-Coherent Optical OFDM,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  6. J. Arnaud, “Enhancement of optical receiver sensitivities by amplification of the carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(11), 893–899 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. G. Atkins, D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “Application of Brillouin amplification in coherent optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 22(10), 556–558 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, and J. L. Zyskind, “Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 124–126 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, C. G. Atkins, and R. Wyatt, “Influence of nonlinear dispersion in coherent narrowband amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Electron. Lett. 22(12), 671–672 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, “Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 363–365 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Ronghui and Y. Peida, “Numerical analisys of Brillouin amplifiers for use in self-homodyne detection,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 361–365 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, “PSK self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier for multibit/symbol transmission with inverse-RZ signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, “Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 363–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, and J. L. Zyskind, “Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 124–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Ronghui and Y. Peida, “Numerical analisys of Brillouin amplifiers for use in self-homodyne detection,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 361–365 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

C. G. Atkins, D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “Application of Brillouin amplification in coherent optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 22(10), 556–558 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, C. G. Atkins, and R. Wyatt, “Influence of nonlinear dispersion in coherent narrowband amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Electron. Lett. 22(12), 671–672 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. Arnaud, “Enhancement of optical receiver sensitivities by amplification of the carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(11), 893–899 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, J.

J. Arnaud, “Enhancement of optical receiver sensitivities by amplification of the carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(11), 893–899 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, C. G.

D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, C. G. Atkins, and R. Wyatt, “Influence of nonlinear dispersion in coherent narrowband amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Electron. Lett. 22(12), 671–672 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “Application of Brillouin amplification in coherent optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 22(10), 556–558 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Blake, M.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cennini, G.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, “Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 363–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, and J. L. Zyskind, “Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 124–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

C. G. Atkins, D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “Application of Brillouin amplification in coherent optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 22(10), 556–558 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, C. G. Atkins, and R. Wyatt, “Influence of nonlinear dispersion in coherent narrowband amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Electron. Lett. 22(12), 671–672 (1986).
[CrossRef]

De Man, E.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, L. B.

B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “120 Gbit/s over 500-km Using Single-Band Polarization-Multiplexed Self-Coherent Optical OFDM,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Duthel, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geckeler, C.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, “Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 363–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, J.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, and J. L. Zyskind, “Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 124–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, F.

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, “PSK self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier for multibit/symbol transmission with inverse-RZ signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lowery, A. J.

B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “120 Gbit/s over 500-km Using Single-Band Polarization-Multiplexed Self-Coherent Optical OFDM,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Miyazaki, T.

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, “PSK self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier for multibit/symbol transmission with inverse-RZ signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peida, Y.

F. Ronghui and Y. Peida, “Numerical analisys of Brillouin amplifiers for use in self-homodyne detection,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 361–365 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ritt, G.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, “Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 363–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ronghui, F.

F. Ronghui and Y. Peida, “Numerical analisys of Brillouin amplifiers for use in self-homodyne detection,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 361–365 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. J. C.

B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “120 Gbit/s over 500-km Using Single-Band Polarization-Multiplexed Self-Coherent Optical OFDM,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Schmidt, E. D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulien, C.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. W.

D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, C. G. Atkins, and R. Wyatt, “Influence of nonlinear dispersion in coherent narrowband amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Electron. Lett. 22(12), 671–672 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “Application of Brillouin amplification in coherent optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 22(10), 556–558 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Staines, S.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, and J. L. Zyskind, “Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 124–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van den Borne, D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, M.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, “Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 363–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wuth, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, C. G. Atkins, and R. Wyatt, “Influence of nonlinear dispersion in coherent narrowband amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Electron. Lett. 22(12), 671–672 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “Application of Brillouin amplification in coherent optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 22(10), 556–558 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zan, Z.

B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “120 Gbit/s over 500-km Using Single-Band Polarization-Multiplexed Self-Coherent Optical OFDM,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Zong, J.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, and J. L. Zyskind, “Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 124–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, “Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 363–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

C. G. Atkins, D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “Application of Brillouin amplification in coherent optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 22(10), 556–558 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, D. W. Smith, C. G. Atkins, and R. Wyatt, “Influence of nonlinear dispersion in coherent narrowband amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Electron. Lett. 22(12), 671–672 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E. D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “120 Gbit/s over 500-km Using Single-Band Polarization-Multiplexed Self-Coherent Optical OFDM,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Arnaud, “Enhancement of optical receiver sensitivities by amplification of the carrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(11), 893–899 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, “PSK self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier for multibit/symbol transmission with inverse-RZ signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, and J. L. Zyskind, “Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 124–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Ronghui and Y. Peida, “Numerical analisys of Brillouin amplifiers for use in self-homodyne detection,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 361–365 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Tsukamoto, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent Demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK Signals with 16-GHz Spacing after 200-km Transmission,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper PDP29, San Diego, 2005.

M. J. Fice, A. J. Seeds, B. J. Pugh, J. M. Heaton, and S. J. Clements, “Homodyne Coherent Receiver with Phase Locking to Orthogonal-Polarisation Pilot Carrier by Optical Injection Phase Lock Loop, ” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OTuG1, San Diego, 2009.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental Setup. ECL: External Cavity Laser; FBG: Fiber Bragg Grating; MZM Mach-Zehnder Modulator; FTTF: Flat-Top Tunable Filter; OC: Optical Circulator; PPG: Pulse Pattern Generator; PM: Phase Modulator; EDFA: Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier; SOA: Semiconductor Optical Amplifier; OTF: Optical Tunable Filter; VOA: Variable Optical Attenuator; PC: Polarization Controller; HPF: High-Pass Filter; LPF: Low-Pass Filter. The insets indicate the optical spectra at various points in the setup (a-d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical Spectra of the BPSK signal before (a) and after (b) the carrier selective amplification. Inset: eye diagram taken for the under-modulated BPSK signal before the carrier selective amplification (y-scale: 20 mV/div).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eye diagrams of: (a) coherent detected BPSK using only BA, (b) coherent detected BPSK using also post-detection HPF and 8B-10B line coding, and (c) direct detected OOK (y-scale: 50 mV/div).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER curves for the coherent detected BPSK with HPF (black-circles) and without (white-circles). Curves of the IM-DD (squares) and the theoretical limit for BPSK coherent detection with balance receiver (dashed line) are also plotted for comparison.

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