Abstract

The ability of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to extract quantitative biological composition of tissues has been used to discern tissue types in both pre-clinical and clinical cancer studies. Typically, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy systems are designed for single-point measurements. Clinically, an imaging system would provide valuable spatial information on tissue composition. While it is feasible to build a multiplexed fiber-optic probe based spectral imaging system, these systems suffer from drawbacks with respect to cost and size. To address these we developed a compact and low cost system using a broadband light source with an 8-slot filter wheel for illumination and silicon photodiodes for detection. The spectral imaging system was tested on a set of tissue mimicking liquid phantoms which yielded an optical property extraction accuracy of 6.40 ± 7.78% for the absorption coefficient (µa) and 11.37 ± 19.62% for the wavelength-averaged reduced scattering coefficient (µs’).

© 2010 OSA

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2010

2009

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McLaughlin, L. M. Ochoa-Frongia, S. M. Patil, H. S. Cody, and L. M. Sclafani, “Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 206(1), 76–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1533–1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, H. Mizrachi, S. R. Smith, and A. Estabrook, “Touch preparation or frozen section for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases from breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(10), 1166–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1995

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

A’Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alderman, A. K.

J. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amorosino, M. S.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Badizadegan, K.

Balch, G. C.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Barry, W. T.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bean, S. M.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bechtel, K. L.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, R. C.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bleiweiss, I.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breslin, T. M.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bydlon, T. M.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabro, K. W.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carey, L. A.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, R. W.

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartwright, P. S.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cendán, J. C.

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerda, S.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, V.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, V. T.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cheang, M. C.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coco, D.

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cody, H. S.

S. A. McLaughlin, L. M. Ochoa-Frongia, S. M. Patil, H. S. Cody, and L. M. Sclafani, “Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 206(1), 76–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conway, K.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copeland, E. M.

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, D.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C. E.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Creager, A. J.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Las Morenas, A.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deming, S. L.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillon, M. F.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dressler, L. G.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Earp, H. S.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edmiston, S.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elackattu, A.

El-Naggar, A. K.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estabrook, A.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, H. Mizrachi, S. R. Smith, and A. Estabrook, “Touch preparation or frozen section for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases from breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(10), 1166–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Fitzmaurice, M.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, F. J.

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

Gajdos, C.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L.

Gallagher, J.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geisinger, K. R.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Geradts, J.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gfinet, D. R.

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, K. W.

Gillenwater, A. M.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, H. M.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Grillone, G.

Haka, A. S.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, M. S.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Harter, J.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, A. D.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, E.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E. S.

J. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huston, T. L.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, L.

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffrey, S.

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junker, M. K.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, J.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karaca, G.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanah, M.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, M. C.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, T.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, A.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotwall, C.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ku, N. N.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Kuech, T. F.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurachi, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakhani, S.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamorte, W. W.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, C.

Lee, J. J.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livasy, C. A.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, J. Y.

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

Mc Dermott, E. W.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, S.

McLaughlin, S. A.

S. A. McLaughlin, L. M. Ochoa-Frongia, S. M. Patil, H. S. Cody, and L. M. Sclafani, “Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 206(1), 76–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, J. E.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menes, T. S.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, H. Mizrachi, S. R. Smith, and A. Estabrook, “Touch preparation or frozen section for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases from breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(10), 1166–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millikan, R. C.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkovic, J.

Mithani, S. K.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Mizrachi, H.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, H. Mizrachi, S. R. Smith, and A. Estabrook, “Touch preparation or frozen section for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases from breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(10), 1166–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, L. K.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moorman, P. G.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, L. A.

J. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicosia, S. V.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nielsen, T. O.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowels, K. W.

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Doherty, A.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donoghue, G.

O’Higgins, N.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Higgins, N. J.

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ochoa-Frongia, L. M.

S. A. McLaughlin, L. M. Ochoa-Frongia, S. M. Patil, H. S. Cody, and L. M. Sclafani, “Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 206(1), 76–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, M. P.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1533–1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patil, S. M.

S. A. McLaughlin, L. M. Ochoa-Frongia, S. M. Patil, H. S. Cody, and L. M. Sclafani, “Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 206(1), 76–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

Perou, C. M.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pigalarga, R.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pistey, R.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, C. M.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1533–1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranson, M.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Redden Weber, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintgen, D. S.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Richards, L. M.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripley, P. M.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, I. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sclafani, L. M.

S. A. McLaughlin, L. M. Ochoa-Frongia, S. M. Patil, H. S. Cody, and L. M. Sclafani, “Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 206(1), 76–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Shenk, R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, J. F.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Singh, S. K.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. R.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, H. Mizrachi, S. R. Smith, and A. Estabrook, “Touch preparation or frozen section for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases from breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(10), 1166–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smitt, M. C.

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stier, E.

Stiles, A.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

Stockdale, F. E.

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, M. D.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tartter, P. I.

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, H. Mizrachi, S. R. Smith, and A. Estabrook, “Touch preparation or frozen section for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases from breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(10), 1166–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tousimis, E.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troester, M. A.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tse, C. K.

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Vishwanath, K.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volynskaya, Z.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waljee, J.

J. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wangensteen, S.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, J. Q. Brown, B. Yu, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, J. Geradts, L. G. Wilke, and N. Ramanujam, “Performance metrics of an optical spectral imaging system for intra-operative assessment of breast tumor margins,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8058–8076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, P. R.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Yu, B.

Yu, C. C.

Zapetti, D.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zdeblick, M. J.

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Am. J. Surg.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Surg.

C. Kotwall, M. Ranson, A. Stiles, and M. S. Hamann, “Relationship between initial margin status for invasive breast cancer and residual carcinoma after re-excision,” Am. Surg. 73(4), 337–343 (2007).
[PubMed]

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Menes, P. I. Tartter, H. Mizrachi, S. R. Smith, and A. Estabrook, “Touch preparation or frozen section for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases from breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(10), 1166–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Waljee, E. S. Hu, L. A. Newman, and A. K. Alderman, “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast conserving surgery for cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1297–1298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Arch. Surg.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Cancer

M. C. Smitt, K. W. Nowels, M. J. Zdeblick, S. Jeffrey, R. W. Carlson, F. E. Stockdale, and D. R. Gfinet, “The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long-term results of breast conservation,” Cancer 76(2), 259–267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.

F. J. Fleming, A. D. Hill, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, N. J. O’Higgins, and C. M. Quinn, “Intraoperative margin assessment and re-excision rate in breast conserving surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 30(3), 233–237 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Use of genetic algorithms to optimize fiber optic probe design for the extraction of tissue optical properties,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1533–1535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Surg.

S. A. McLaughlin, L. M. Ochoa-Frongia, S. M. Patil, H. S. Cody, and L. M. Sclafani, “Influence of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph node and lumpectomy margin status on reoperation rates in patients undergoing breast-conservation therapy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 206(1), 76–82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, “Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yu, J. Y. Lo, T. F. Kuech, G. M. Palmer, J. E. Bender, and N. Ramanujam, “Cost-effective diffuse reflectance spectroscopy device for quantifying tissue absorption and scattering in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JAMA

L. A. Carey, C. M. Perou, C. A. Livasy, L. G. Dressler, D. Cowan, K. Conway, G. Karaca, M. A. Troester, C. K. Tse, S. Edmiston, S. L. Deming, J. Geradts, M. C. Cheang, T. O. Nielsen, P. G. Moorman, H. S. Earp, and R. C. Millikan, “Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study,” JAMA 295(21), 2492–2502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. C. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 11(4), 325–332 (2009).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

Other

S. Prahl, Mie Scattering Program, Oregon Medical Laser Center, 2005, http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/mie/ .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the two spectral imaging systems. (A) A system schematic of the current clinical spectral imaging system. This figure contains a block diagram of the system as well as a detailed diagram of the probe tip. (B) A system schematic of the compact optical spectral imaging system which details the illumination and collection setup. (C) Photograph of the tip of the 3x3 photodiode array. The numbers represent the pixel numbers, which will be referred to throughout the manuscript.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System photographs to compare physical size (A) Photograph of the modified 3x3 compact optical spectral imaging system compared to the (B) Photograph of the clinical system. The same laptop is pictured in both system photographs in order to compare system scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all pixels at three different wavelengths (400, 500, 600 nm). The SNR was calculated by taking 15 repeated measurements on a liquid phantom and dividing the mean by the standard deviation. The optical properties of the phantom used in the SNR measurements were µa = 7.00 cm-1 and µs’ = 14.84 cm-1. (B) The table on the right indicates the optical power output (at 400 nm) from the illumination fiber of each pixel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Normalized (to reflectance value at 600 nm) diffuse reflectance spectrum collected from phantom 14 using the clinical and compact optical spectral imaging systems, corrected with a reflectance standard and reference phantom. The plots demonstrated reasonable agreement between the two systems. (B) Measured and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra from the compact optical spectral imaging system. These spectra are not normalized but are corrected with a reflectance standard.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photographs of pixels 5 and 7 demonstrating the physical defect in pixel 7. Note difference in the central illumination fiber in both pixels. As noted in the representative spectra, all pixels match the clinical system aside from pixel #7.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plots of the optical property extraction accuracy averaged over pixels #1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 of the compact optical spectral imaging system. The data presented is the wavelength averaged µa and µs’ for all 14 liquid phantoms. Average extraction errors for each individual pixel are displayed in following figure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Summary of the optical property (µa and µs’ averaged over all wavelengths) extraction errors for all pixels. The errors shown here are the average errors over all 14 target phantoms. Phantom #4 (µa = 2.00 cm-1; µs’ = 19.22 cm-1) was used as the reference phantom for the inversions.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The median (over all measured samples) optical properties of three different tissue types encountered in our clinical studies. The number of samples measured of each tissue type are also shown. These optical properties are reported specifically for the shortest (450 nm) and longest (600 nm) wavelengths acquired in the clinical data.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Table detailing the optical properties of 14 liquid phantoms (wavelength-averaged value over 400-600 nm) used to test the optical property extraction accuracy of the 3x3 compact optical spectral imaging system. The highlighted phantom was used as the reference phantom for the inversions using the scalable Monte Carlo model.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Side-by-side comparison of key physical system parameters between the clinical system and compact optical spectral imaging system. A noteworthy comparison is the large reduction of footprint in the compact system.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of the simulated sensing depth and cross-talk between the clinical system and the compact optical spectral imaging system. The sensing depth was simulated at two wavelengths, 450 nm and 600 nm, while cross-talk was only simulated at 600 nm.

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of performance metrics between the clinical and compact optical spectral imaging systems. The SNR of the clinical system was measured in a previous study (at 405 nm using a phantom with optical properties of µa = 7.5 cm−1 and µs’ = 16 cm−1)

Metrics