Abstract

An improved Dual-wavelength-excitation Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer (DPFS) has been reported. It measures two fluorescence spectra excited sequentially by lasers at 263 nm and 351 nm, from single atmospheric aerosol particles in the 1-10 μm diameter size range. Here we investigate the different levels of discrimination capability obtained when different numbers of excitation and fluorescence-emission wavelengths are used for analysis. We a) use the DPFS to measure fluorescence spectra of Bacillus subtilis and other aerosol particles, and a 25-hour sample of atmospheric aerosol at an urban site in Maryland, USA; b) analyze the data using six different algorithms that employ different levels of detail of the measured data; and c) show that when more of the data measured by the DPFS is used, the ability to discriminate among particle types is significantly increased.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

J. A. Huffman, B. Treutlein, and U. Pöschl, “Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(7), 3215–3233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

R. C. Moffet and K. A. Prather, “In-situ measurements of the mixing state and optical properties of soot with implications for radiative forcing estimates,” P. National Academy of Sciences 106, 11872–11877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, D. A. Pickersgill, V. R. Després, and U. Pöschl, “High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12814–12819 (2009) (PNAS).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Manninen, M. Putkiranta, J. Saarela, A. Rostedt, T. Sorvajärvi, J. Toivonen, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, and R. Hernberg, “Fluorescence cross sections of bioaerosols and suspended biological agents,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4320–4328 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Particle-fluorescence spectrometer for real-time single-particle measurements of atmospheric organic carbon and biological aerosol,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(2), 429–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Gabey, M. W. Gallagher, J. Whitehead, and J. Dorsey, “Measurements of coarse mode and primary biological aerosol transmission through a tropical forest canopy using a dual-channel fluorescence aerosol spectrometer,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9(5), 18965–18984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivaprakasam, T. Pletcher, J. E. Tucker, A. L. Huston, J. McGinn, D. Keller, and J. D. Eversole, “Classification and selective collection of individual aerosol particles using laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B126–B136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Huang, Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, and R. K. Chang, “Real-time measurement of dual-wavelength laser-induced fluorescence spectra of individual aerosol particles,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16523–16528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Muller, A. Baker, R. Hutchinson, I. J. Fairchild, and C. Kidd, “Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrophotometry,” Atmos. Environ. 42(34), 8036–8045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kanaani, M. Hargreaves, J. Smith, Z. Ristovski, V. Agranovski, and L. Morawska, “Performance of UVAPS with respect to detection of airborne fungi,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39(2), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

V. R. Després, J. F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl, “Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1127–1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of biological and other organic-carbon aerosols in the atmosphere: measurements at New Haven, CT and Las Cruces, NM, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Jaenicke, S. Matthias-Maser, and S. Gruber, “Omnipresence of biological material in the atmosphere,” Environ. Chem. 4(4), 217–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Elbert, P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pooschl, “Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(17), 4569–4588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Samburova, R. Zenobi, and M. Kalberer, “Characterization of high molecular weight compounds in urban atmospheric particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(8), 2163–2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jaenicke, “Abundance of cellular material and proteins in the atmosphere,” Science 308(5718), 73 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Kaye, W. R. Stanley, E. Hirst, E. V. Foot, K. L. Baxter, and S. J. Barrington, “Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3583–3593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

V. Sivaprakasam, A. Huston, C. Scotto, and J. Eversole, “Multiple UV wavelength excitation of bioaerosols,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Gulijk, J. C. M. Marijnissen, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and A. J. Schmidt-Ott, “Measuring diesel soot with a scanning mobility particle sizer and an electrical low-pressure impactor: performance assessment with a model for fractal-like agglomerates,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(5), 633–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: measurement and classification of single particles containing organic carbon,” Atmos. Environ. 38(11), 1657–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halvorson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37(8), 628–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

P. Herckes, M. P. Hannigan, L. Trenary, T. Lee, and J. L. Collett, “Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis, California,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, and I. Ganszky, “Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Bauer, A. Kasper-Giebl, M. Loflund, H. Giebl, R. Hitzenberger, F. Zibuschka, and H. Puxbaum, “The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloudwater, precipitation and aerosols,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 109–119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gelencser, A. Hoffer, Z. Krivacsy, G. Kiss, A. Molnar, and E. Meszaros, “On the possible origin of humic matter in fine continental aerosol ,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH2 1–5 (2002).

2001 (1)

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, M. N. Goodell, and P. Hairston, “Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 3, 545–558 (2000).

P. H. Kaye, J. E. Barton, E. Hirst, and J. M. Clark, “Simultaneous light scattering and intrinsic fluorescence measurement for the classification of airborne particles,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3738–3745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

J. D. Eversole, J. J. Hardgrove, W. K. Cary, D. P. Choulas, and M. Seaver, “Continuous, rapid biological aerosol detection with the use of UV fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 249–259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 240–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, and J. R. Bottiger, “Single-shot fluorescence spectra of individual micrometer-sized bioaerosols illuminated by a 351- or a 266-nm ultraviolet laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 116–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Schroder, P. J. Hargis, R. L. Schmitt, D. J. Rader, and I. R. Shokair, ““Development of an unattended ground sensor for ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection of biological agent aerosols,” Air Monitoring and Detection of Chemical and Biological Agents II,” Proc. SPIE 3855, 82–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, G. Videen, G. Chen, and R. K. Chang, “Aerosol fluorescence spectrum analyzer for rapid measurement of single micrometer-sized airborne biological particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28(2), 95–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. VanReenen, “An Ink-Jet Aerosol Generator,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, s965–s966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, “Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28(3), 471–482 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, “Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7149–7155 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agranovski, V.

H. Kanaani, M. Hargreaves, J. Smith, Z. Ristovski, V. Agranovski, and L. Morawska, “Performance of UVAPS with respect to detection of airborne fungi,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39(2), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Albano, C.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alsberg, T.

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andracchio, A.

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

W. Elbert, P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pooschl, “Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(17), 4569–4588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Després, J. F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl, “Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1127–1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baker, A.

C. L. Muller, A. Baker, R. Hutchinson, I. J. Fairchild, and C. Kidd, “Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrophotometry,” Atmos. Environ. 42(34), 8036–8045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balkanski, Y.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, I.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barr, E. B.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barrington, S. J.

Barton, J. E.

Battistelli, E.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, H.

H. Bauer, A. Kasper-Giebl, M. Loflund, H. Giebl, R. Hitzenberger, F. Zibuschka, and H. Puxbaum, “The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloudwater, precipitation and aerosols,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 109–119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, K. L.

Berry, S. R.

Bottiger, J. R.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, and J. R. Bottiger, “Single-shot fluorescence spectra of individual micrometer-sized bioaerosols illuminated by a 351- or a 266-nm ultraviolet laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 116–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. VanReenen, “An Ink-Jet Aerosol Generator,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, s965–s966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, L. M.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, M. N. Goodell, and P. Hairston, “Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 3, 545–558 (2000).

Bruno, J. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cary, W. K.

J. D. Eversole, J. J. Hardgrove, W. K. Cary, D. P. Choulas, and M. Seaver, “Continuous, rapid biological aerosol detection with the use of UV fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 249–259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Particle-fluorescence spectrometer for real-time single-particle measurements of atmospheric organic carbon and biological aerosol,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(2), 429–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Huang, Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, and R. K. Chang, “Real-time measurement of dual-wavelength laser-induced fluorescence spectra of individual aerosol particles,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16523–16528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of biological and other organic-carbon aerosols in the atmosphere: measurements at New Haven, CT and Las Cruces, NM, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: measurement and classification of single particles containing organic carbon,” Atmos. Environ. 38(11), 1657–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halvorson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37(8), 628–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, and J. R. Bottiger, “Single-shot fluorescence spectra of individual micrometer-sized bioaerosols illuminated by a 351- or a 266-nm ultraviolet laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 116–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, G. Videen, G. Chen, and R. K. Chang, “Aerosol fluorescence spectrum analyzer for rapid measurement of single micrometer-sized airborne biological particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28(2), 95–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Nachman, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Conditional-firing aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer for individual airborne particles with pulsed 266-nm laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 21(16), 1307–1309 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, “Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7149–7155 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. T.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Cheng, Y. S.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chou, T.

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choulas, D. P.

J. D. Eversole, J. J. Hardgrove, W. K. Cary, D. P. Choulas, and M. Seaver, “Continuous, rapid biological aerosol detection with the use of UV fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 249–259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. M.

Cobler, P.

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collett, J. L.

P. Herckes, M. P. Hannigan, L. Trenary, T. Lee, and J. L. Collett, “Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis, California,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, R.

V. R. Després, J. F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl, “Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1127–1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deluca, P. J.

J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. VanReenen, “An Ink-Jet Aerosol Generator,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, s965–s966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dentener, F. J.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Després, V. R.

J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, D. A. Pickersgill, V. R. Després, and U. Pöschl, “High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12814–12819 (2009) (PNAS).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Després, J. F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl, “Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1127–1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorsey, J.

A. M. Gabey, M. W. Gallagher, J. Whitehead, and J. Dorsey, “Measurements of coarse mode and primary biological aerosol transmission through a tropical forest canopy using a dual-channel fluorescence aerosol spectrometer,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9(5), 18965–18984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elbert, W.

W. Elbert, P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pooschl, “Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(17), 4569–4588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enroth, J.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ervens, B.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J.

Eversole, J. D.

V. Sivaprakasam, T. Pletcher, J. E. Tucker, A. L. Huston, J. McGinn, D. Keller, and J. D. Eversole, “Classification and selective collection of individual aerosol particles using laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B126–B136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Eversole, J. J. Hardgrove, W. K. Cary, D. P. Choulas, and M. Seaver, “Continuous, rapid biological aerosol detection with the use of UV fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 249–259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Facchini, M. C.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, I. J.

C. L. Muller, A. Baker, R. Hutchinson, I. J. Fairchild, and C. Kidd, “Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrophotometry,” Atmos. Environ. 42(34), 8036–8045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feather, G.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, G. L.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, “Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7149–7155 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feugnet, G.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foot, E. V.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.

J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, D. A. Pickersgill, V. R. Després, and U. Pöschl, “High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12814–12819 (2009) (PNAS).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuzzi, S.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gabey, A. M.

A. M. Gabey, M. W. Gallagher, J. Whitehead, and J. Dorsey, “Measurements of coarse mode and primary biological aerosol transmission through a tropical forest canopy using a dual-channel fluorescence aerosol spectrometer,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9(5), 18965–18984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galambos, I.

G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, and I. Ganszky, “Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, M. W.

A. M. Gabey, M. W. Gallagher, J. Whitehead, and J. Dorsey, “Measurements of coarse mode and primary biological aerosol transmission through a tropical forest canopy using a dual-channel fluorescence aerosol spectrometer,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9(5), 18965–18984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ganszky, I.

G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, and I. Ganszky, “Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gelencser, A.

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G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
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G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
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P. Herckes, M. P. Hannigan, L. Trenary, T. Lee, and J. L. Collett, “Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis, California,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 99–108 (2002).
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H. Bauer, A. Kasper-Giebl, M. Loflund, H. Giebl, R. Hitzenberger, F. Zibuschka, and H. Puxbaum, “The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloudwater, precipitation and aerosols,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 109–119 (2002).
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C. V. Gulijk, J. C. M. Marijnissen, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and A. J. Schmidt-Ott, “Measuring diesel soot with a scanning mobility particle sizer and an electrical low-pressure impactor: performance assessment with a model for fractal-like agglomerates,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(5), 633–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manninen, A.

Marijnissen, J. C. M.

C. V. Gulijk, J. C. M. Marijnissen, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and A. J. Schmidt-Ott, “Measuring diesel soot with a scanning mobility particle sizer and an electrical low-pressure impactor: performance assessment with a model for fractal-like agglomerates,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(5), 633–655 (2004).
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A. Manninen, M. Putkiranta, J. Saarela, A. Rostedt, T. Sorvajärvi, J. Toivonen, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, and R. Hernberg, “Fluorescence cross sections of bioaerosols and suspended biological agents,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4320–4328 (2009).
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G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
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R. Jaenicke, S. Matthias-Maser, and S. Gruber, “Omnipresence of biological material in the atmosphere,” Environ. Chem. 4(4), 217–220 (2007).
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Mayo, M. W.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
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S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, “Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7149–7155 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGinn, J.

McIntosh, L.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
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S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
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G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. C. Moffet and K. A. Prather, “In-situ measurements of the mixing state and optical properties of soot with implications for radiative forcing estimates,” P. National Academy of Sciences 106, 11872–11877 (2009).
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Molnar, A.

A. Gelencser, A. Hoffer, Z. Krivacsy, G. Kiss, A. Molnar, and E. Meszaros, “On the possible origin of humic matter in fine continental aerosol ,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH2 1–5 (2002).

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, A. D.

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moortgat, G. K.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morawska, L.

H. Kanaani, M. Hargreaves, J. Smith, Z. Ristovski, V. Agranovski, and L. Morawska, “Performance of UVAPS with respect to detection of airborne fungi,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39(2), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moulijn, J. A.

C. V. Gulijk, J. C. M. Marijnissen, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and A. J. Schmidt-Ott, “Measuring diesel soot with a scanning mobility particle sizer and an electrical low-pressure impactor: performance assessment with a model for fractal-like agglomerates,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(5), 633–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C. L.

C. L. Muller, A. Baker, R. Hutchinson, I. J. Fairchild, and C. Kidd, “Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrophotometry,” Atmos. Environ. 42(34), 8036–8045 (2008).
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Myhre, C. E. L.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nachman, P.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, G. Videen, G. Chen, and R. K. Chang, “Aerosol fluorescence spectrum analyzer for rapid measurement of single micrometer-sized airborne biological particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28(2), 95–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Nachman, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Conditional-firing aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer for individual airborne particles with pulsed 266-nm laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 21(16), 1307–1309 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, “Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7149–7155 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nenes, A.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 240–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, C. J.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niles, S.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, and J. R. Bottiger, “Single-shot fluorescence spectra of individual micrometer-sized bioaerosols illuminated by a 351- or a 266-nm ultraviolet laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 116–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nowoisky, J. F.

V. R. Després, J. F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl, “Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1127–1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Hern, T. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orr, C.-S.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y. L.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Particle-fluorescence spectrometer for real-time single-particle measurements of atmospheric organic carbon and biological aerosol,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(2), 429–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Huang, Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, and R. K. Chang, “Real-time measurement of dual-wavelength laser-induced fluorescence spectra of individual aerosol particles,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16523–16528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of biological and other organic-carbon aerosols in the atmosphere: measurements at New Haven, CT and Las Cruces, NM, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: measurement and classification of single particles containing organic carbon,” Atmos. Environ. 38(11), 1657–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halvorson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37(8), 628–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, and J. R. Bottiger, “Single-shot fluorescence spectra of individual micrometer-sized bioaerosols illuminated by a 351- or a 266-nm ultraviolet laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 116–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pandis, S. N.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pendleton, J. D.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Persson, L.

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pickersgill, D. A.

J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, D. A. Pickersgill, V. R. Després, and U. Pöschl, “High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12814–12819 (2009) (PNAS).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinnick, R. G.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Particle-fluorescence spectrometer for real-time single-particle measurements of atmospheric organic carbon and biological aerosol,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(2), 429–434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Huang, Y. L. Pan, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, and R. K. Chang, “Real-time measurement of dual-wavelength laser-induced fluorescence spectra of individual aerosol particles,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16523–16528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of biological and other organic-carbon aerosols in the atmosphere: measurements at New Haven, CT and Las Cruces, NM, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence spectra of atmospheric aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: measurement and classification of single particles containing organic carbon,” Atmos. Environ. 38(11), 1657–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halvorson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37(8), 628–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, and J. R. Bottiger, “Single-shot fluorescence spectra of individual micrometer-sized bioaerosols illuminated by a 351- or a 266-nm ultraviolet laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 116–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C.-S. Orr, and G. Feather, “Real-time measurement of fluorescence spectra from single airborne biological particles,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 221–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, G. Videen, G. Chen, and R. K. Chang, “Aerosol fluorescence spectrum analyzer for rapid measurement of single micrometer-sized airborne biological particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28(2), 95–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Nachman, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, and R. K. Chang, “Conditional-firing aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer for individual airborne particles with pulsed 266-nm laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 21(16), 1307–1309 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, “Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles,” Appl. Opt. 34(30), 7149–7155 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pletcher, T.

Pooschl, U.

W. Elbert, P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pooschl, “Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(17), 4569–4588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pöschl, U.

J. A. Huffman, B. Treutlein, and U. Pöschl, “Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(7), 3215–3233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, D. A. Pickersgill, V. R. Després, and U. Pöschl, “High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12814–12819 (2009) (PNAS).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Després, J. F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl, “Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1127–1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Potter, A.

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prather, K. A.

R. C. Moffet and K. A. Prather, “In-situ measurements of the mixing state and optical properties of soot with implications for radiative forcing estimates,” P. National Academy of Sciences 106, 11872–11877 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preppernau, B. L.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Primmerman, C. A.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 240–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Putaud, J. P.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
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Putkiranta, M.

A. Manninen, M. Putkiranta, J. Saarela, A. Rostedt, T. Sorvajärvi, J. Toivonen, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, and R. Hernberg, “Fluorescence cross sections of bioaerosols and suspended biological agents,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4320–4328 (2009).
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G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puxbaum, H.

H. Bauer, A. Kasper-Giebl, M. Loflund, H. Giebl, R. Hitzenberger, F. Zibuschka, and H. Puxbaum, “The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloudwater, precipitation and aerosols,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 109–119 (2002).
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Quant, F. R.

P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, “Design of an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28(3), 471–482 (1997).
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Rader, D. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Schroder, P. J. Hargis, R. L. Schmitt, D. J. Rader, and I. R. Shokair, ““Development of an unattended ground sensor for ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection of biological agent aerosols,” Air Monitoring and Detection of Chemical and Biological Agents II,” Proc. SPIE 3855, 82–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Radloff, R. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reinivaara, R.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
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Reyes, F. L.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 240–248 (1999).
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Rhodes, S.

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rice, N.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, M. N. Goodell, and P. Hairston, “Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 3, 545–558 (2000).

Ristovski, Z.

H. Kanaani, M. Hargreaves, J. Smith, Z. Ristovski, V. Agranovski, and L. Morawska, “Performance of UVAPS with respect to detection of airborne fungi,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39(2), 175–189 (2008).
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Rosen, J. M.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of biological and other organic-carbon aerosols in the atmosphere: measurements at New Haven, CT and Las Cruces, NM, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
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Rosman, K.

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rostedt, A.

A. Manninen, M. Putkiranta, J. Saarela, A. Rostedt, T. Sorvajärvi, J. Toivonen, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, and R. Hernberg, “Fluorescence cross sections of bioaerosols and suspended biological agents,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4320–4328 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, G. S.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 240–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saarela, J.

Samburova, V.

V. Samburova, R. Zenobi, and M. Kalberer, “Characterization of high molecular weight compounds in urban atmospheric particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(8), 2163–2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanchez, “Bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 240–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarvari, Z.

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
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Schmidt-Ott, A. J.

C. V. Gulijk, J. C. M. Marijnissen, M. Makkee, J. A. Moulijn, and A. J. Schmidt-Ott, “Measuring diesel soot with a scanning mobility particle sizer and an electrical low-pressure impactor: performance assessment with a model for fractal-like agglomerates,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(5), 633–655 (2004).
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Schmitt, R. L.

K. L. Schroder, P. J. Hargis, R. L. Schmitt, D. J. Rader, and I. R. Shokair, ““Development of an unattended ground sensor for ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection of biological agent aerosols,” Air Monitoring and Detection of Chemical and Biological Agents II,” Proc. SPIE 3855, 82–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, K. L.

K. L. Schroder, P. J. Hargis, R. L. Schmitt, D. J. Rader, and I. R. Shokair, ““Development of an unattended ground sensor for ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection of biological agent aerosols,” Air Monitoring and Detection of Chemical and Biological Agents II,” Proc. SPIE 3855, 82–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scotto, C.

Seaver, M.

J. D. Eversole, J. J. Hardgrove, W. K. Cary, D. P. Choulas, and M. Seaver, “Continuous, rapid biological aerosol detection with the use of UV fluorescence: Outdoor test results,” Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3(4-5), 249–259 (1999).
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Seinfeld, J. H.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shokair, I. R.

K. L. Schroder, P. J. Hargis, R. L. Schmitt, D. J. Rader, and I. R. Shokair, ““Development of an unattended ground sensor for ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection of biological agent aerosols,” Air Monitoring and Detection of Chemical and Biological Agents II,” Proc. SPIE 3855, 82–91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sivaprakasam, V.

Smith, J.

H. Kanaani, M. Hargreaves, J. Smith, Z. Ristovski, V. Agranovski, and L. Morawska, “Performance of UVAPS with respect to detection of airborne fungi,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39(2), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sorvajärvi, T.

Stanley, W. R.

Stephanou, E. G.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stuebing, E. W.

J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. VanReenen, “An Ink-Jet Aerosol Generator,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, s965–s966 (1998).
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Swietlicki, E.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P. E.

W. Elbert, P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pooschl, “Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(17), 4569–4588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tisone, G. C.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toivonen, J.

Torczynski, J. R.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trenary, L.

P. Herckes, M. P. Hannigan, L. Trenary, T. Lee, and J. L. Collett, “Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis, California,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 99–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Treutlein, B.

J. A. Huffman, B. Treutlein, and U. Pöschl, “Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(7), 3215–3233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsigaridis, K.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, J. E.

Tysk, S. M.

Van Dingenen, R.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

VanReenen, D. R.

J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. VanReenen, “An Ink-Jet Aerosol Generator,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, s965–s966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varga, B.

G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, and I. Ganszky, “Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vesley, D.

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, M. N. Goodell, and P. Hairston, “Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 3, 545–558 (2000).

Videen, G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, G. Videen, G. Chen, and R. K. Chang, “Aerosol fluorescence spectrum analyzer for rapid measurement of single micrometer-sized airborne biological particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28(2), 95–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vignati, E.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, J.

A. M. Gabey, M. W. Gallagher, J. Whitehead, and J. Dorsey, “Measurements of coarse mode and primary biological aerosol transmission through a tropical forest canopy using a dual-channel fluorescence aerosol spectrometer,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9(5), 18965–18984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winterhalter, R.

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wlodarski, M.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

Y. L. Pan, P. Cobler, S. Rhodes, A. Potter, T. Chou, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, R. G. Pinnick, and J.-P. Wolf, “High-speed, high-sensitivity aerosol fluorescence spectrum detection using a 32-anode photomultiplier tube detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1831–1836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. A.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zappoli, S.

Z. Krivácsy, G. Kiss, B. Varga, I. Galambos, Z. Sarvari, A. Gelencser, A. D. Molnar, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, T. Alsberg, H. C. Hansson, and L. Persson, “Study of humic-like substances in fog and interstitial aerosol by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis,” Atmos. Environ. 34(25), 4273–4281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, Z.

G. Feugnet, E. Lallier, A. Grisard, L. McIntosh, J. E. Hellström, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, C. Albano, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, M. Kwasny, Z. Zawadzki, Z. Mierczyk, K. Kopczynski, A. Rostedt, M. Putkiranta, M. Marjamäki, J. Keskinen, J. Enroth, K. Janka, R. Reinivaara, L. Holma, T. Humppi, E. Battistelli, E. Iliakis, and G. Gerolimos, “Improved laser-induced fluorescence method for bio-attack early warning detection system,” Proc. SPIE 7116, 71160C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zebuhr, Y.

S. Zappoli, A. Andracchio, S. Fuzzi, M. C. Facchini, A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, E. Meszaros, H.-C. Hansson, K. Rosman, and Y. Zebuhr, “Inorganic, organic and macromolecular components of fine aerosol in different areas of Europe in relation to their water solubility,” Atmos. Environ. 33(17), 2733–2743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

V. Samburova, R. Zenobi, and M. Kalberer, “Characterization of high molecular weight compounds in urban atmospheric particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(8), 2163–2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zibuschka, F.

H. Bauer, A. Kasper-Giebl, M. Loflund, H. Giebl, R. Hitzenberger, F. Zibuschka, and H. Puxbaum, “The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloudwater, precipitation and aerosols,” Atmos. Res. 64(1-4), 109–119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (5)

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, “Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and Other Biological Particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(4), 653–664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Brosseau, D. Vesley, N. Rice, M. N. Goodell, and P. Hairston, “Differences in detected fluorescence among several bacterial species measured with a direct-reading particle sizer and fluorescence detector,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 3, 545–558 (2000).

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, G. Videen, G. Chen, and R. K. Chang, “Aerosol fluorescence spectrum analyzer for rapid measurement of single micrometer-sized airborne biological particles,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28(2), 95–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, D. J. Rader, T. J. O’Hern, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. J. Radloff, “Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30(2), 186–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, J. Hartings, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. Halvorson, and R. K. Chang, “Single-particle fluorescence spectrometer for ambient aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37(8), 628–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (4)

J. A. Huffman, B. Treutlein, and U. Pöschl, “Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(7), 3215–3233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kanakidou, J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F. J. Dentener, M. C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C. J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G. K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C. E. L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J. Wilson, “Organic aerosol and global climate modeling: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(4), 1053–1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Samburova, R. Zenobi, and M. Kalberer, “Characterization of high molecular weight compounds in urban atmospheric particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(8), 2163–2170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Elbert, P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pooschl, “Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(17), 4569–4588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

A. M. Gabey, M. W. Gallagher, J. Whitehead, and J. Dorsey, “Measurements of coarse mode and primary biological aerosol transmission through a tropical forest canopy using a dual-channel fluorescence aerosol spectrometer,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9(5), 18965–18984 (2009).
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Atmos. Environ. (4)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual-wavelength Excitation Single Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer (DPFS). (A) top view schematic of DPFS, (B) aerosol sampling system, and (C) expanded view of optics for measuring sequentially two fluorescence spectra excited by two UV laser pulses (263 nm and 351 nm) from single aerosol particles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Timing protocol for the Dual-wavelength excitation single Particle Fluorescence Spectrometer (DPFS).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averaged scattering response (263-nm excitation) of the DPFS to monodispersed PSL particles. The blue line is the linear fit result (see text). The error bars show standard deviations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram of (a) light scattering particle size distribution (263 nm) measured by the DPFS, and (b) the aerodynamic paricle size distribution measured by the TSI-APS 3200 for Polystrene (PSL) particles with nominal sizes 1 μm, 2 μm, 3 μm, 5.6 μm, and 8 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plot of total fluorescence from uniform tryptophan particles excited by 263-nm and 351-nm probe lasers vs. light scattering particle size. Light scattering size is determined from the 263 nm elastic scattering. Tryptophan test particles generated by the IJAG typically have an approximate 30% dispersion in particle size. The calculated particle size generated by the IJAG is about 4 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical DPFS fluorescence spectra from aerosolized biological and nonbiological particles excited by 263-nm and 351-nm probe lasers. Spectra are averages of 100 single-particle spectra for nominal 5 μm particles generated with the IJAG.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scatter plot of total fluorescence vs. light scattering particle size from single atmospheric aerosol particles excited by 263-nm and 351-nm probe lasers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scatter plot of DPFS data for single atmospheric aerosol particles and various test particles. Shown is the ratio of total fluorescence over visible fluorescence excited by 263 nm versus total fluorescence excited by 351 nm and scattering particle size for atmospheric aerosol particles (black circle), albumin (turquoise), B. subtilis (red), kaolin (blue), and riboflavin (green). The results suggest that B. subtilis overlaps with only a small fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, and is well differentiated from kaolin and riboflavin.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Illustration of fluorescence spectra of B. subtilis measured by DPFS when the 263-nm laser fires. All spectra have been normalized so that the amplitude of the 263-nm peak [algorithms 1, 3-6] is 1.0. The blue line is the averaged fluorescence spectrum, determined from 100 B. subtilis particles in the 1-10 mm size range [used in algorithms 5 and 6]. The bars indicate two times the standard deviations of the measurements. (b) The spectral regions over which the data is integrated over wavelength for use in different algorithms. The UV is in the blue box, and the visible fluorescence regions are marked by the two red blocks. The elastic scattering (one anode of the 32-anode PMT) is marked with purple.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Particle count rates and percentages of particles in different categories as detected for atmospheric aerosol by the DPFS and classified using the 6 algorithms. Particles were measured during the time period Sept 15, 5 PM to Sept 16, 6 PM at Adelphi, MD. (A) Particle count rates: total (black); fluorescent particles according to algorithm 1 (turquoise); fluorescent particles according to algorithm 2 (orange); B. subtilis-like particles according to algorithms 3 (magenta); 4 (blue); 5 (green); and 6 (red). (B) Percentages of fluorescent particles according to algorithm 1 (turquoise) and 2 (orange). Percentages of B. subtilis-like particles according to algorithms 3 (magenta)); 4 (blue); 5 (green); and 6 (red).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Percentages of atmospheric aerosol particles that cannot be distinguished from one particular sample of B. subtilis using each of the six algorithms described in the text. The atmospheric aerosol sample of 1,419,127 total aerosol particles was measured by the DPFS during Sept 15, 5 PM to Sept 16, 6 PM, 2009, at Adelphi, MD.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The types of measured intensities used for each of the six algorithms investigated here. All intensities are measured using the DPFS. The last column lists the percentage of B. subtilis particles assigned to the target category. The elastic scattering listed here is not used as a size threshold for any of the algorithms, but is used to normalizing the fluorescence. The minimum particle sizes are determined by signals from the crossed-beam diode lasers.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Averages of B. subtilis aerosol particle normalized fluorescence spectra excited by 263-nm in the 300-600 nm range (used in algorithms 5 and 6) and 351-nm in the 400–700 nm range (used in algorithm 6). Given are average ratios and standard deviations (SD) of fluorescence spectra normalized by elastic scattering at 263-nm.

Equations (1)

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y = 1.445 d + 3.113

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