Abstract

We demonstrate an adaptive mechanical-wetting lens with a concentric reservoir to reduce image aberrations and overcome the gravity effect. This lens adopts liquid pressure to change the interface between two immiscible liquids which, in turn, changes the focal length of the resultant liquid lens. Good optical performance, high resolution, and a wide dynamic range of both positive and negative optical power are achieved. Since no PDMS is employed, such lenses can extend their working range to infrared region by choosing proper liquids.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  5. D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Tunable liquid microlens arrays in electrode-less configuration and their accurate characterization by interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2487–2499 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Murali, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “Three-dimensional adaptive microscopy using embedded liquid lens,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 145–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Tunable liquid microlens arrays in electrode-less configuration and their accurate characterization by interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2487–2499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. J. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric liquid microlens with well-shaped electrode,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10499–10505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Shin, C. Chen, J. Ho, and F. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Mirco. Eng. 83(11–12), 2499–2503 (2006).

2005

C. A. López, C. C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 134102–134104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

Agarwal, A. K.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beebe, D. J.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevsky, Y.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

T. Shin, C. Chen, J. Ho, and F. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Mirco. Eng. 83(11–12), 2499–2503 (2006).

Chen, C. N.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, “Dielectrically actuated liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7140–7145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. S.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, F.

T. Shin, C. Chen, J. Ho, and F. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Mirco. Eng. 83(11–12), 2499–2503 (2006).

De Nicola, S.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drakopoulos, M.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

Feste, S.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

Frehse, F.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

Günzler, T. F.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirsa, A. H.

C. A. López, C. C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 134102–134104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J.

T. Shin, C. Chen, J. Ho, and F. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Mirco. Eng. 83(11–12), 2499–2503 (2006).

Hunger, U. T.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, M.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. A. López, C. C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 134102–134104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. J.

Lo, Y. H.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

López, C. A.

C. A. López, C. C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 134102–134104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

Morita, S.

Murali, S.

Oku, H.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paturzo, M.

Ren, H.

Reza, S.

S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

Schröder, W. H.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schug, C.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, T.

T. Shin, C. Chen, J. Ho, and F. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Mirco. Eng. 83(11–12), 2499–2503 (2006).

Simionovici, A. S.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Somogyi, A.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Thompson, K. P.

Tsai, C. G.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

Volvelle, L.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Xu, S.

Yang, J. T.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, “Dielectrically actuated liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7140–7145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, F. Frehse, B. Lengeler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, and W. H. Schröder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. A. López, C. C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 134102–134104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mirco. Eng.

T. Shin, C. Chen, J. Ho, and F. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Mirco. Eng. 83(11–12), 2499–2503 (2006).

Nature

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, “Planar liquid confinement for optical centering of dielectric liquid lenses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(19), 1396–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (Guildf.)

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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