Abstract

Planar hybrid metamaterial with different split ring resonators (SRR) structure dimensions are fabricated on silicon substrates by femtosecond (fs) laser micro-lens array (MLA) lithography and lift-off process. The fabricated metamaterial structures consist of: (a) uniform metamaterial with 4 SRRs at same design and dimension as a unit cell and (b) hybrid metamaterial with 4 SRRs at same design but different dimensions as a unit cell. The electromagnetic field responses of these hybrid and single dimension metamaterial structures are characterized using a terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy. Transmission spectra of these metamaterial show that a broader resonance peak is formed when 2 SRRs are close to each other. FDTD simulation proves that there is a strong mutual coupling between 2 SRRs besides a strong localized electric field at the split gap, which can enhance the electric field up to 364 times for tunable, broad band and high sensitivity THz sensing. Meanwhile, the strong coupling effect could lead to the formation of an additional resonance peak at ~0.2 THz in the THz spectra regime.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterial: Theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, A. Senthil Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens arrays fabrication by laser interference lithography for super resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, I. K. Lin, J. S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. C. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science 291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Corson, R. Mallozzi, J. Orenstein, J. N. Eckstein, and I. Bozovic, “Vanishing of phase coherence in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Nature 398, 2211 (1999).

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1968

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterial: Theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterial: Theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, C.

Bingham, C. M.

Bozovic, I.

J. Corson, R. Mallozzi, J. Orenstein, J. N. Eckstein, and I. Bozovic, “Vanishing of phase coherence in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Nature 398, 2211 (1999).

Cai, W.

Chen, G. X.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chong, T. C.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corson, J.

J. Corson, R. Mallozzi, J. Orenstein, J. N. Eckstein, and I. Bozovic, “Vanishing of phase coherence in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Nature 398, 2211 (1999).

Cummer, S. A.

Dai, J.

Drachev, V. P.

Eckstein, J. N.

J. Corson, R. Mallozzi, J. Orenstein, J. N. Eckstein, and I. Bozovic, “Vanishing of phase coherence in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Nature 398, 2211 (1999).

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilderdale, D. J.

M. C. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science 291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajnal, J. V.

M. C. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science 291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hand, T. H.

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterial: Theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, A. Senthil Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens arrays fabrication by laser interference lithography for super resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Hwang, J. S.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, I. K. Lin, J. S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

Jokerst, N. M.

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, I. K. Lin, J. S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landy, N. I.

Larkman, D. J.

M. C. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science 291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterial: Theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, A. Senthil Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens arrays fabrication by laser interference lithography for super resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, I. K.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, I. K. Lin, J. S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, A. Senthil Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens arrays fabrication by laser interference lithography for super resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. L.

Luk’yanchuk, B. S.

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, A. Senthil Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens arrays fabrication by laser interference lithography for super resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mallozzi, R.

J. Corson, R. Mallozzi, J. Orenstein, J. N. Eckstein, and I. Bozovic, “Vanishing of phase coherence in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Nature 398, 2211 (1999).

Mittleman, D. M.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

O’Hara, J. F.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, J.

J. Corson, R. Mallozzi, J. Orenstein, J. N. Eckstein, and I. Bozovic, “Vanishing of phase coherence in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Nature 398, 2211 (1999).

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, C. Bingham, T. Tyler, S. Palit, T. H. Hand, W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, N. M. Jokerst, and S. A. Cummer, “Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9746–9752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterial: Theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, A. Senthil Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens arrays fabrication by laser interference lithography for super resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191125 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
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M. C. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science 291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
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C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Y. Lin, Q. Xie, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, A. Senthil Kumar, and M. Rahman, “Microlens arrays fabrication by laser interference lithography for super resolution surface nanopatterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191125 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterial: Theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science 291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the fabricated metamaterial structures with a unit cell consists of (a) 4 SRRs of same core size, (b) 4 SRRs of same antenna gap size, (c) Hybrid 1 design with core sizes of 24, 28, 32 and 36 µm at a constant gap of 3 µm and (d) Hybrid 2 design with gap sizes of 2, 4, 6 and 8 µm at a constant core size of 32 µm. The insert for each image shows the 4 SRR elements inside a unit cell. The lower portion of the figure gives the design geometric parameters of the metamaterials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transmission spectra for the SRR metamaterial of (a) 4 SRRs with a same core size inside a unit cell (4 samples with core sizes of 24, 28, 32 and 34 µm) and (b) 4 SRRs with a same antenna gap size inside a unit cell (4 samples with gap sizes of 2, 4, 6 and 8 µm). The E-field of THz wave is along x axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured THz-TDS transmission spectra for the Hybrid 1 design with SRR core size varied and the Hybrid 2 design with SRR antenna gap size varied. The plots are normalized against the measured transmission spectra of the bare silicon substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FDTD simulation results of the electric field distribution on the SRR metamaterial structures for (a) Hybrid 1 and (b) Hybrid 2 designs. The direction of the electric field vector of the THz wave is in the x direction.

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