Abstract

We report the development of a two-color Fourier domain Pump-Probe Optical Coherence Tomography (PPOCT) system. Tissue phantom experiments to characterize the system performance demonstrated imaging depths in excess of 725 μm, nearly comparable to the base Optical Coherence Tomography system. PPOCT A-line rates were also demonstrated in excess of 1 kHz. The physical origin of the PPOCT signal was investigated with a series of experiments which revealed that the signal is a mixture of short and long lifetime component signals. The short lifetime component was attributed to transient absorption while the long lifetime component may be due to a mixture of transient absorption and thermal effects. Ex vivo images of porcine iris demonstrated the potential for imaging melanin in the eye, where cancer of the melanocytes is the most common form of eye cancer in adults.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 340–342 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. E. Applegate and J. A. Izatt, “Molecular imaging of endogenous and exogenous chromophores using ground state recovery pump-probe optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9142–9155 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Yang, L. E. L. McGuckin, J. D. Simon, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2016–2018 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1436–1438 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Live Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2391–2393 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation optical coherence tomography in collagen,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2252–2254 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Jiang, I. Tomov, Y. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1090–1092 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Bredfeldt, C. Vinegoni, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecularly sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 495–497 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, “Nonlinear InterferometricVibrational Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 1239051–1239054 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. L. Oldenburg, B. E. Applegate, J. A. Izatt, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular OCT Contrast Enhancement and Imaging,” ˝in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler, and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, New York, 2009), pp. 713–752.
  15. B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Theoretical comparison of the sensitivity of molecular contrast optical coherence tomography techniques,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8146–8163 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. W. Kufe, J. F. Holland, E. Frei, and American Cancer Society., Cancer medicine 6 (BC Decker, Hamilton, Ont.; Lewiston, NY, 2003).
  17. J. Georges and J. M. Mermet, “Thermal Lensing Spectroscopy - Principle and Applications,” Analusis 16, 203–215 (1988).
  18. D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Live Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Georges and J. M. Mermet, “Thermal Lensing Spectroscopy - Principle and Applications,” Analusis 16, 203–215 (1988).

Aalders, M. C. G.

Adler, D. C.

Applegate, B. E.

Becker, W.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, A.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birckner, E.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

J. S. Bredfeldt, C. Vinegoni, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecularly sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 495–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, “Nonlinear InterferometricVibrational Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 1239051–1239054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bredfeldt, J. S.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Choma, M. A.

Crow, M. J.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Live Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Georges, J.

J. Georges and J. M. Mermet, “Thermal Lensing Spectroscopy - Principle and Applications,” Analusis 16, 203–215 (1988).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. W.

Huber, R.

Izatt, J. A.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Live Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Applegate and J. A. Izatt, “Molecular imaging of endogenous and exogenous chromophores using ground state recovery pump-probe optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9142–9155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2391–2393 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Theoretical comparison of the sensitivity of molecular contrast optical coherence tomography techniques,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8146–8163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, L. E. L. McGuckin, J. D. Simon, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2016–2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation optical coherence tomography in collagen,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2252–2254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 340–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jentsch, S.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

J. S. Bredfeldt, C. Vinegoni, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecularly sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 495–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, “Nonlinear InterferometricVibrational Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 1239051–1239054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGuckin, L. E. L.

Mermet, J. M.

J. Georges and J. M. Mermet, “Thermal Lensing Spectroscopy - Principle and Applications,” Analusis 16, 203–215 (1988).

Mik, E. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. D.

Rollins, A. M.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schenke, S.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, D.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, F.

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. D.

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Live Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Vinegoni, C.

Wang, Y.

Wax, A.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Live Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Analusis (1)

J. Georges and J. M. Mermet, “Thermal Lensing Spectroscopy - Principle and Applications,” Analusis 16, 203–215 (1988).

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

D. Schweitzer, S. Schenke, M. Hammer, F. Schweitzer, S. Jentsch, E. Birckner, W. Becker, and A. Bergmann, “Towards metabolic mapping of the human retina,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 410–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Live Cells Using Immunotargeted Gold Nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 340–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1436–1438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, I. Tomov, Y. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1090–1092 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, L. E. L. McGuckin, J. D. Simon, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2016–2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation optical coherence tomography in collagen,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2252–2254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bredfeldt, C. Vinegoni, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecularly sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 495–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2391–2393 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, “Nonlinear InterferometricVibrational Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 1239051–1239054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. L. Oldenburg, B. E. Applegate, J. A. Izatt, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular OCT Contrast Enhancement and Imaging,” ˝in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler, and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, New York, 2009), pp. 713–752.

D. W. Kufe, J. F. Holland, E. Frei, and American Cancer Society., Cancer medicine 6 (BC Decker, Hamilton, Ont.; Lewiston, NY, 2003).

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