Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of an AsSe microtaper with a protective cladding made of PolyMethyl MethAcrylate (PMMA). The AsSe core of the microtaper provides an ultrahigh nonlinearity up to γ = 133 W−1m−1 whereas the polymer cladding provides mechanical strength for normal handling of the device and reduces sensitivity to the surrounding environment.

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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Dumais, F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, J. Bures, A. Villeneuve, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Enhanced self-phase modulation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 18(23), 1996–1998 (1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Engeness, M. Ibanescu, S. Johnson, O. Weisberg, M. Skorobogatiy, S. Jacobs, and Y. Fink, “Dispersion tailoring and compensation by modal interactions in OmniGuide fibers,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1175–1196 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, and J. Fischer, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 21(2), 168–175 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. G. Kuzyk, Polymer Fiber Optics: Materials, Physics, and Applications (CRC press, 2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, D. Schaafsma, B. J. Cole, V. Q. Nguyen, R. E. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of single-mode chalcogenide optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(2), 214–217 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

2004

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1995

1993

1986

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimization in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, and J. Fischer, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 21(2), 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V, S.

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, D. Schaafsma, B. J. Cole, V. Q. Nguyen, R. E. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of single-mode chalcogenide optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(2), 214–217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, G.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudebs, G.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bures, J.

Chaudhari, C.

Cherukulappurath, S.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. J.

D'Amore, F.

F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumais, P.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Engeness, T.

Fink, Y.

T. Engeness, M. Ibanescu, S. Johnson, O. Weisberg, M. Skorobogatiy, S. Jacobs, and Y. Fink, “Dispersion tailoring and compensation by modal interactions in OmniGuide fibers,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1175–1196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, J.

J. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, and J. Fischer, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 21(2), 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, M.

Foster, M. A.

Fu, L.

Fu, L. B.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gallazzi, M. C.

F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Gonthier, F.

Guignard, M.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hart, S. D.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimization in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hodelin, J.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Jacobs, S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S.

Kito, C.

Lacroix, S.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lanata, M.

F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M.

Lipson, M.

Lou, J.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimization in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mägi, E. C.

Maskaly, G. R.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, M.

Mazur, E.

Miklos, R. E.

Misumi, T.

Monro, T. M.

Mossadegh, R.

Nguyen, H. C.

Nguyen, V. Q.

Ohishi, Y.

Pietralunga, S. M.

F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prideaux, P. H.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, G.

Roelens, M. A. F.

Sanchez, F.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Santo, R.

J. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, and J. Fischer, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 21(2), 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schaafsma, D.

Shaw, L. B.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Suzuki, T.

Swalen, J.

J. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, and J. Fischer, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 21(2), 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tacke, M.

J. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, and J. Fischer, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 21(2), 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

Troles, J.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

Tzolov, V.

Villeneuve, A.

Weisberg, O.

Wigley, P. G. J.

Yan, X.

Yeom, D. I.

Yeom, D.-I.

Zerbi, G.

F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. Q.

Electron. Lett.

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimization in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop.

J. Swalen, R. Santo, M. Tacke, and J. Fischer, “Properties of polymeric thin films by integrated optical techniques,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 21(2), 168–175 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. D'Amore, M. Lanata, S. M. Pietralunga, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Enhancement of PMMA nonlinear optical properties by means of a quinoid molecule,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 661–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. G. Kuzyk, Polymer Fiber Optics: Materials, Physics, and Applications (CRC press, 2007).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic press, 2007), 4th ed.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the microtaper geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguide nonlinearity parameter and chromatic dispersion of the hybrid AsSe-PMMA microtaper at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Picture of the wire section of the hybrid microtaper sample #1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization setup. PM: Power meter, OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer, SMF: Single-mode fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output pulse spectra of the hybrid microtaper #1 for increasing peak power levels. Dashed line: experiment, solid line: simulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output pulse spectra of the hybrid microtaper #2 for increasing peak power levels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental and simulation results of pulse spectra at the output of hybrid microtaper #2. Dashed line: experiment, solid line: simulation.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ¯ 2 = ε 0 μ 0 n 0 2 ( x , y ) n 2 ( x , y ) ( 2 | E | 4 + | E 2 | 2 ) d A 3 | [ E × H * ] z ^ | 2 d A ,
A e f f = | [ E × H * ] z ^ d A | 2 | [ E × H * ] z ^ | 2 d A
A ( z , T ) z + 1 2 ( α + α 2 A e f f | A ( z , T ) | 2 ) A ( z , T ) k 2 j k + 1 k ! β k k A ( z , T ) T k = j γ ( 1 + j ω 0 T ) [ A ( z , T ) T R ( T T ' ) | A ( z , T ' ) | 2 d T ' ] .

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