Abstract

The fastest known operation of all-optical flip-flop memory was experimentally demonstrated using a 980-nm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Operating conditions of the input signal power and the frequency detuning to achieve the fast optical memory operation were characterized experimentally. At the optimum condition, 1-bit data signals were arbitrarily sampled and memorized from a 26-1 pseudorandom bit sequence return-to-zero signal at 20 Gb/s by using AND gate and memory functionalities obtained from the polarization bistability. In addition, 1-bit memory operation was achieved for a 6-bit non-return-to-zero signal at 40 Gb/s. Both memory operations required 250-μW data signal power and had optical gain. The high potential of all-optical flip-flop memories based on polarization bistable VCSELs for use in ultrafast all-optical future networks was demonstrated.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, “Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 722–728 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Liu, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Optical shift register based on an optical flip-flop memory with a single active element,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9708–9713 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Katayama, T. Ooi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Experimental demonstration of multi-bit optical buffer memory using 1.55-μm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1495–1504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Katayama, T. Ooi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Experimental demonstration of multi-bit optical buffer memory using 1.55-μm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mori and H. Kawaguchi, “10-Gb/s optical buffer memory using a polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEICE Trans. Electron ,” E 92C, 957–963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

Y. Sato, T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Polarization bistable characteristics of mesa structure 980 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(16), L438–L440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, “Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 722–728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beuwer, W.

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, “Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 722–728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den Besten, J. H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, E.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

S. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Liu, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Optical shift register based on an optical flip-flop memory with a single active element,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9708–9713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eiselt, M.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Großkopf, G.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katayama, T.

T. Katayama, T. Ooi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Experimental demonstration of multi-bit optical buffer memory using 1.55-μm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

T. Katayama, T. Ooi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Experimental demonstration of multi-bit optical buffer memory using 1.55-μm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mori and H. Kawaguchi, “10-Gb/s optical buffer memory using a polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEICE Trans. Electron ,” E 92C, 957–963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato, T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Polarization bistable characteristics of mesa structure 980 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(16), L438–L440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A.

Khoe, G. D.

S. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Liu, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Optical shift register based on an optical flip-flop memory with a single active element,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9708–9713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Küller, L.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langenhorst, R.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Liang, W.

Liu, Y.

Ludwig, R.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mori, T.

T. Mori and H. Kawaguchi, “10-Gb/s optical buffer memory using a polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEICE Trans. Electron ,” E 92C, 957–963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato, T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Polarization bistable characteristics of mesa structure 980 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(16), L438–L440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ooi, T.

T. Katayama, T. Ooi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Experimental demonstration of multi-bit optical buffer memory using 1.55-μm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pieper, W.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G.

Sato, Y.

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato, T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Polarization bistable characteristics of mesa structure 980 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(16), L438–L440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, “Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 722–728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Etten, W.

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, “Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 722–728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamayoshi, Y.

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato, T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Polarization bistable characteristics of mesa structure 980 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(16), L438–L440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zhang, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Katayama, T. Ooi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Experimental demonstration of multi-bit optical buffer memory using 1.55-μm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1495–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Tian, W. van Etten, and W. Beuwer, “Ultrafast all-optical shift register and its perspective application for optical fast packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 722–728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron (1)

T. Mori and H. Kawaguchi, “10-Gb/s optical buffer memory using a polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEICE Trans. Electron ,” E 92C, 957–963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Großkopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, and H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Sato, T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, “Polarization bistable characteristics of mesa structure 980 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(16), L438–L440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization bistable operation of VCSEL by injection of optical pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

1-bit buffering using polarization bistable VCSEL. (a) Implementation and (b) timing chart.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization resolved L-I curves of VCSEL. (a) Overview and (b) magnified views around bistable region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. EC-LD: external cavity laser diode, ETDM MUX: electrical time domain multiplexer, ETDM DEMUX: electrical time domain demultiplexer, LN: LiNbO3 modulator, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, PBC: polarization beam combiner, PC: polarization controller, PD: photodiode, and 1, 3, 10 dB: optical coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Operating conditions for 20-Gb/s PRBS RZ data input. (a) Measurement and (b) numerical estimation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Memory operation for 20-Gb/s, 26-1-bit PRBS RZ data signals. (a) Magnified data signal without set pulses (top) and VCSEL input with set pulses (bottom), (b) VCSEL input, and (c) VCSEL output (0° polarization component).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Memory operation for 6-bit 40-Gb/s NRZ data signals. (a) Magnified data signal without set pulses (left part, and dashed lines in right part) and VCSEL input with set pulses (solid lines in right part), (b) VCSEL input, and (c) VCSEL output (0° polarization component).

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