Abstract

Detailed analysis of the tilted-pulse-front pumping scheme used for ultrashort THz pulse generation by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses is presented. It is shown that imaging errors in a pulse-front-tilting setup consisting of a grating and a lens can lead to a THz beam with strongly asymmetric intensity profile and strong divergence, thereby limiting applications. Optimized setup parameters are given to reduce such distortions. We also show that semiconductors can offer a promising alternative to LiNbO3 in high-energy THz pulse generation when pumped at longer wavelengths. This requires tilted-pulse-front pumping, however the small tilt angles allow semiconductors to be easily used in such schemes. Semiconductors can be advantageous for generating THz pulses with high spectral intensity at higher THz frequencies, while LiNbO3 is better suited to generate THz pulses with very large relative spectral width. By using optimized schemes the upscaling of the energy of ultrashort THz pulses is foreseen.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257–261 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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2010

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-S. Lin, Y. Huang, C.-S. Chang, C.-L. Pan, L. Yan, and C.-K. Lee, “Generation and spectral manipulation of coherent terahertz radiation with two-stage optical rectification,” Opt. Express 16, 14294–14303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generation of 30 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2497–2499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

2003

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257–261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759–1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

1986

1985

Almási, G.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of µJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762–5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257–261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bandulet, H.-C.

Bartal, B.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of µJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

Bliss, D.

Bonacina, L.

Chang, C.-S.

Chang, G.

Chekalin, S. V.

Chen, C.-W.

Divin, C. J.

Elsaesser, T.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fülöp, J. A.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galvanauskas, A.

Guenther, A. H.

Hagan, D. J.

Hahn, T.

Harris, J. S.

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of µJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762–5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257–261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759–1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

Hey, R.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M. C.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Hwang, H. Y.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imeshev, G.

Jacob, F.

Jepsen, P. U.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jewariya, M.

Kieffer, J.-C.

Kozma, I. Z.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of µJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762–5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257–261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of µJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762–5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lee, C.-K.

Lin, Y.-S.

Liu, C.-H.

Löffler, T.

Lynch, C.

Martinez, O. E.

O. E. Martinez, “Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Commun. 59, 229–232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S. S.

Morandotti, R.

Musheinish, M. A.

Nagai, M.

Nathan, V.

Nelson, K. A.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Ozaki, T.

Pálfalvi, L.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-L.

Péter, Á.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polgár, K.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prall, B. S.

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Reimann, K.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedle, E.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of µJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762–5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

Said, A. A.

Schall, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Sosnowski, T. S.

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. G.

Tanaka, K.

Thomson, M.

Tiedje, H. F.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Walther, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

Williamson, S. L.

Woerner, M.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Yan, L.

Yang, J.

Yeh, K.-L.

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Yu, X.

Appl. Phys. B

I. Z. Kozma, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Geometrical optical modeling of femtosecond setups having angular dispersion,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 257–261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of µJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 419423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Pálfalvi, J. A. Fülöp, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Novel setups for extremely high power single-cycle terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, H. Y. Hwang, T. S. Sosnowski, B. S. Prall, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Fiber laser pumped high average power single-cycle terahertz pulse source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345–353 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

O. E. Martinez, “Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Commun. 59, 229–232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353–5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification,” Opt. Express 13, 5762–5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Optical generation of narrow-band terahertz packets in periodically-inverted electro-optic crystals: conversion efficiency and optimal laser pulse format,” Opt. Express 14, 2263–2276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “High power source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14, 4439–4444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, C.-H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 7909–7913 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 µJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, J. Yang, M. A. Musheinish, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “GaP waveguide emitters for high power broadband THz generation pumped by Yb-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 16308–16315 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-S. Lin, Y. Huang, C.-S. Chang, C.-L. Pan, L. Yan, and C.-K. Lee, “Generation and spectral manipulation of coherent terahertz radiation with two-stage optical rectification,” Opt. Express 16, 14294–14303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759–1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump - terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Observation of nonequilibrium carrier distribution in Ge, Si, and GaAs by terahertz-pump—terahertz-probe measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 035201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chapter 16.

P. Y. Yu, and M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors. Physics and Materials Properties (Springer, Berlin, 2005).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1985), pp. 429–444.

J.-C. Diels, and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic Press, San Diego, 1996), Chapter 1.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometry of non-collinear THz generation and the coordinates used. The origin of the coordinate system is at the position of shortest pump pulse duration (τ = τ 0) at the pump beam center. The nonlinear material is prism-shaped.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of pump pulse duration (a) and the corresponding THz generation efficiency (b) inside the nonlinear material (LN) for various values of the TL pulse duration τ 0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

THz generation efficiency and effective THz generation length L eff in LN vs. TL pump pulse duration. The marked points correspond to the curves in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

THz spectra from LN for various pump pulse durations. The inset shows the dependence of the spectral peak frequency on the TL pump pulse duration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pulse-front-tilting setup.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Three different TPFP setups (a–c) with their respective output THz beam profiles (d). Details are given in the text.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Required angle of incidence according to Eqs. (9), (10) and (13) (solid line), and Littrow angle (θ Littrow, dashed-dotted line) vs. groove density of the grating (p −1).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Pump pulse fronts and the images of the grating inside the LN crystal for f = 75 mm and f = 150 mm lens focal lengths.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Maximal THz generation efficiencies in different materials for (a) Ω0 = 1 THz, (b) Ω0 = 3 THz and 5 THz phase matching frequencies. (c) and (d) show the THz spectra corresponding to the highest efficiency points in (a) and (b). The pump wavelength is indicated for each curve.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Optimal TL pump pulse duration τ 0 and the corresponding effective THz generation length L eff vs. pump intensity for Ω0 = 1 THz (a, b), Ω0 = 3 THz and 5 THz (c, d) phase matching frequencies.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of calculated and measured THz generation efficiencies as a function of the pump fluence. The measured values were taken from [31] and [32] in case of τ 0 = 150 fs and 30 fs, respectively.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

To the calculation of the tilt angle θ of the grating’s image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Properties of nonlinear optical materials used in the calculations. d eff: effective nonlinear coefficient for OR, E g: bandgap, m eff: electron effective mass in units of the electron mass m e, ε : high-frequency dielectric constant, αε (Ω): reference for absorption coefficient in the THz range, β 2(β 3): two(three)-photon absorption coefficient for the pump. For GaP, an electron scattering time of τ sc = 180 fs was used in the calculations, while for other materials τ sc = 200 fs was assumed.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The PFT γ necessary for velocity matching at 1 THz and the possible lowest order of linear or multiphoton pump absorption for materials suitable for OR. λ 0: pump wavelength; 1PA, 2PA, 3PA, etc.: linear, two-photon, three-photon, etc., absorption, respectively.

Equations (18)

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ν g ( ω 0 ) · cos γ = ν ( Ω 0 ) ,
E ( Ω , z ) z = i μ 0 Ω c 2 n ( Ω ) P NL ( Ω , z cos γ ) e i Δ k z 1 2 α ( Ω , z cos γ ) E ( Ω , z ) ,
P NL ( Ω , z cos γ ) = ε 0 χ ( 2 ) 0 E ( ω + Ω , z cos γ ) E * ( ω , z cos γ ) d ω .
Δ k ( Ω ) = k ( Ω ) + k ( ω 0 ) k ( ω 0 + Ω ) k ( Ω ) Ω d k d ω ω 0 = Ω c [ n ( Ω ) n g ( ω 0 ) ] .
Δ k ( Ω ) Ω c [ n ( Ω ) n g ( ω 0 ) cos γ ] ,
α ( Ω , z cos γ ) = α ε ( Ω ) + α fc ( Ω , z cos γ ) .
N fc ( z cos γ ) = I τ hc λ 0 ( α 0 + 1 2 β 2 I + 1 3 β 3 I 2 + . . . ) .
α fc ( Ω , z cos γ ) = 2 Ω c Im [ ε ( 1 ω p 2 Ω 2 + i Ω τ sc ) ] ,
sin θ d = λ 0 n ( λ 0 ) n g ( λ 0 ) p a ,
sin θ i = λ 0 p sin θ d ( grating equation ) ,
s 1 = f ( a + 1 ) ,
s 2 = fs 1 s 1 f s n ( λ 0 ) ,
a = n 2 ( λ 0 ) n g ( λ 0 ) p 2 λ 0 ( λ 0 2 n g 2 ( λ 0 ) p 2 tan 4 γ + 4 n 2 ( λ 0 ) n 2 ( λ 0 ) 2 tan 2 γ ) .
x = x 1 x 1 f s 2 x 1 n f z ,
x = x 1 x 1 s 1 f z 1 ( s 1 z 1 ) .
x = 1 tan θ d · n s 1 s 2 n s 1 f n s 2 f + ( s 1 f ) z n f ,
tan θ = ( d x d z ) 1 = tan θ d · fn s 1 f .
tan γ = n n g λ 0 d ε d λ = λ 0 n g p cos θ d s 1 f f .

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