Abstract

Multiple light spots can be generated by modulating the spatial phase distribution of laser beam with a spatial light modulator (SLM). In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of three-dimensional 1 × 4 splitter waveguides inside a glass by focusing multiple light spots of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses, which can be controlled by switching spatial phase distributions on an SLM. In the conventional fs laser writing technique, a highly precise positioning of a substrate is essential for fabricating a branched waveguide in a splitter. Using the technique proposed in this paper, a continuously branched waveguide can be produced easily by translating a glass substrate only one time; therefore this technique can eliminate the need for a high precision in positioning of a substrate and save a fabrication time.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

2005 (3)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, ““Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).

2001 (2)

1999 (2)

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, “Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 10A), L1146–L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (2)

J. Bengtsson, “Kinoform design with an optimal-rotation-angle method,” Appl. Opt. 33(29), 6879–6884 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Takahashi, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kawachi, “Design and fabrication of silica-based integrated-optic 1X128 power splitter,” Electron. Lett. 27(23), 2131–2133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, “Passive Components in the Subscriber Loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(11), 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode wave-guides on silicon and their application to guide-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Andrews, R. A.

Arai, A. Y.

Audouard, E.

Bellini, N.

Bengtsson, J.

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, ““Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).

Carvalho, I. C.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, A

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

Chuyanov, A.

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chuyanov, V

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

Dalton, L. R

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dawes, J. M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Eaton, S. M.

Emons, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukuchi, N.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

García, J. F.

Garner, S. M.

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Ginther, R.

Hara, T.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Harris, R. D.

Hartl, I.

Hayasaki, Y.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hertel, I. V.

Hirao, K.

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides by using a spatial light modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 126507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, “Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 10A), L1146–L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, M. H.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Z.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huot, N.

Igasaki, Y.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Ippen, E. P.

Jinguji, K.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode wave-guides on silicon and their application to guide-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

H. Takahashi, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kawachi, “Design and fabrication of silica-based integrated-optic 1X128 power splitter,” Electron. Lett. 27(23), 2131–2133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode wave-guides on silicon and their application to guide-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Keck, D. B.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, “Passive Components in the Subscriber Loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(11), 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, R.

Kobayashi, Y.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Kondo, Y.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, “Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 10A), L1146–L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Lee, S. S

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Matsumoto, N.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Mauclair, C.

Mazur, E.

Minoshima, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, “Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 10A), L1146–L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides by using a spatial light modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 126507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Morrow, A. J.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, “Passive Components in the Subscriber Loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(11), 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, N.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, “Passive Components in the Subscriber Loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(11), 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, ““Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).

Ohmori, Y.

H. Takahashi, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kawachi, “Design and fabrication of silica-based integrated-optic 1X128 power splitter,” Electron. Lett. 27(23), 2131–2133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Osgood, R. M.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, G.

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Pospiech, M.

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, “Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 10A), L1146–L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

Sakaguchi, K.

Sakakura, M.

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides by using a spatial light modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 126507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sang-Shin Lee, V.

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sawano, T.

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides by using a spatial light modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 126507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scarmozzino, R.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Schiffrin, D. J.

Shah, L.

Shimotsuma, Y.

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides by using a spatial light modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 126507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Steier,

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinmann, A.

Stoian, R.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugimoto, T.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svalgaard, M.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kawachi, “Design and fabrication of silica-based integrated-optic 1X128 power splitter,” Electron. Lett. 27(23), 2131–2133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode wave-guides on silicon and their application to guide-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takita, A.

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takumi, M.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Tanaka, H.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Thompson, D. A.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, “Passive Components in the Subscriber Loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(11), 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode wave-guides on silicon and their application to guide-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, ““Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).

Väckenstedt, B.

West, E. J.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, ““Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).

Wilson, R.

Withford, M. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Yacoubian, A

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yacoubian, W. H.

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

Yasu, M.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode wave-guides on silicon and their application to guide-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, “Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 10A), L1146–L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, N.

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, ““Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).

AOS News (1)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. Spence, J. M. Dawes, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Direct writing of guided wave devices inside bulk glass using femtosecond lasers,” AOS News 19, 8–11 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hayasaki, T. Sugimoto, A. Takita, and N. Nishida, “Variable holographic femtosecond laser processing by use of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Takahashi, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kawachi, “Design and fabrication of silica-based integrated-optic 1X128 power splitter,” Electron. Lett. 27(23), 2131–2133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. M. Garner, V. Sang-Shin Lee, A. Chuyanov, A. Chen, W. H. Yacoubian, Steier, L. R. Dalton, S. S Lee, V Chuyanov, A Chen, A Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, “Passive Components in the Subscriber Loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(11), 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode wave-guides on silicon and their application to guide-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Sakakura, T. Sawano, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Parallel drawing of multiple bent optical waveguides by using a spatial light modulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 126507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, “Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 10A), L1146–L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Inoue, H. Tanaka, N. Fukuchi, M. Takumi, N. Matsumoto, T. Hara, N. Yoshida, Y. Igasaki, and Y. Kobayashi, “LCOS spatial light modulator controlled by 12-bit signals for optical phase-only modulation,” Proc. SPIE 6487, Y11 (2007).

Other (1)

K. Iizuka, Engineering optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin; Tokyo, 1985)

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (4067 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Parallel laser writing of multiple waveguides inside a glass with an SLM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Structure of a Y splitter. (b) Separation of two adjacent beam spots. (c) Simulated light intensity distribution along the beam propagation direction in the case of (b). (d) Variation of two spatially separated beam spots in writing a splitter in this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for laser writing of optical waveguides with an SLM. M1, M2: dielectric mirrors; L1: a lens of f = 500 mm; L2: a lens of f = 150 mm; DM: a dichroic mirror which refracts light of 750-850 nm; OL: an objective lens; MP: a metal plate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Birds-eye view of 3D 1 × 4 splitter fabricated in this study. (b) Top and side views of the splitter. (c) Distribution of the focused beam spots for writing a splitter. (d) Example of a CGH used in writing a splitter, and (e) the simulated light intensity distributions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical microscope image of a 1 × 4 splitter. (a) Single-straight region, (b) branching region, (c) separating region, and (d) four-straight region. (e)-(h) Cross section images focused at each region. The fabrication of this splitter can be seen in Media 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Intensity distribution of the laser beam guided through the fabricated 1 × 4 splitter. (b) Three dimensional representation of the intensity distribution in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Other examples of splitters written by the same method. (a) 1x3 splitter, (b) 1x4 splitter with different shape of output, and (c) 1x6 splitter.

Equations (1)

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A ( X , Y , Z ) | m , n = N C G H / 2 N C G H / 2 1 F ( x m , y n ) * exp { i Δ Φ ( x m , y n ) } * exp { i π x m 2 + y n 2 λ M ( 1 f 1 Z ) } * exp ( 2 π x m X + y n Y λ M Z ) |

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