Abstract

Silicon waveguides are now widely used to guide radiation in the near-infrared, mainly in the wavelength range of 1.1 – 2.2 µm. While low-loss waveguides at longer wavelengths in silicon have been proposed, experimental realization has been elusive. Here we show that single-mode integrated silicon-on-sapphire waveguides can be used at mid-infrared wavelengths. We demonstrate waveguiding at 4.5 µm, or 2222.2 cm−1, with losses of 4.3 ± 0.6 dB/cm. This result represents the first practical integrated waveguide system for the mid-infrared in silicon, and enables a range of new applications.

© 2010 OSA

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A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
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2008 (6)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Photodetection in silicon beyond the band edge with surface states,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1659–1668 (2008).
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R. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “A Small Polymeric Ridge Waveguide With a High Index Contrast,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 26(13), 1964–1968 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Lipson, “Guiding, Modulating and Emitting Light on Silicon – Challenges and Opportunities,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

E. M. Dianov, “Single-Mode As-S Glass Fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Tacke, “Lead-salt lasers,” Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 359(1780), 547–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185(1-3), 177–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski, “New generation of infrared photodetectors,”, Sensors Act. A 67(1-3), 146–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
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1991 (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large Single-Mode Rib Waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Asbeck, P. M.

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Photodetection in silicon beyond the band edge with surface states,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1659–1668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Breese, M. B. H.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. E.

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, P. F.

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crnjanski, J.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

R. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “A Small Polymeric Ridge Waveguide With a High Index Contrast,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 26(13), 1964–1968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de la Houssaye, P. R.

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, “Single-Mode As-S Glass Fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 39(6), 627–630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. Y.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flood, E. M.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, G. A.

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giusca, C.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Go, R.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goad, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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R. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “A Small Polymeric Ridge Waveguide With a High Index Contrast,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 26(13), 1964–1968 (2008).
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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
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T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Photodetection in silicon beyond the band edge with surface states,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1659–1668 (2008).
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Hryniewicz, J. V.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, R.

R. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “A Small Polymeric Ridge Waveguide With a High Index Contrast,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 26(13), 1964–1968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ja, S. J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janker, B.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
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A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
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King, O.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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Koch, B. R.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
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A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
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Lagnado, I.

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
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A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lively, E.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
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F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185(1-3), 177–183 (2000).
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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
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R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large Single-Mode Rib Waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991).
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F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185(1-3), 177–183 (2000).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski, “New generation of infrared photodetectors,”, Sensors Act. A 67(1-3), 146–152 (1998).
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A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, A.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
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J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski, “New generation of infrared photodetectors,”, Sensors Act. A 67(1-3), 146–152 (1998).
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F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185(1-3), 177–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
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Scherer, A.

Schmidtchen, J.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large Single-Mode Rib Waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991).
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P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
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R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
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R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
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R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large Single-Mode Rib Waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991).
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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
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Teo, E. J.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
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Thomson, D.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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Wang, Q. J.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
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R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
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P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lyakh, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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R. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “A Small Polymeric Ridge Waveguide With a High Index Contrast,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 26(13), 1964–1968 (2008).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large Single-Mode Rib Waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991).
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R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y. H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

R. A. Johnson, P. R. de la Houssaye, C. E. Chang, P. F. Chen, M. E. Wood, G. A. Garcia, I. Lagnado, and P. M. Asbeck, “Advanced Thin-Film Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology: Microwave Circuit Applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 45(5), 1047–1054 (1998).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Three-dimensional rendering of one of the mid-infrared waveguide devices, showing the optical mode propagating through the waveguide. The rendering includes single-mode fibers butt-coupled to the input and output facets. (b) A contour plot of the optical mode of the waveguide is shown, with the electric field magnitude corresponding to 1 Watt of average power. (c) The dispersion diagram for the silicon-on-sapphire waveguides, calculated using a Yee grid based eigensolver. (d) A false-color scanning electron micrograph of the cleaved endfacet of a waveguide. Silicon is shown in green, and sapphire in blue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic of the chip layout is shown. A number of coiled waveguides with varying total length are used to establish waveguiding, and allow determination of the waveguide loss. The approximate location of the cleave planes is shown as well. The devices used for waveguide loss measurements are indicated with red arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A schematic of the experimental setup used to measure the waveguides is shown. Also shown is an image of the lithographic pattern defined on the chip. Some structures consist of a single bend, while some have several bends. (b) The optical transmission is plotted as a function of lateral fiber position, with purple lines corresponding to the positions of waveguides. These positions are identified by comparing the stage micrometer offset to the lithographically defined position, and were confirmed visually by the location of the fiber. Two vertical green lines show control structures, which had narrower waveguides and thus did not guide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) The transmitted optical power as a function of waveguide length is shown for two different sets of measurements of the best chip, with losses of 4.3 ± 0.6 dB/cm and 4.9 ± 0.6 dB/cm achieved. (c), (d) The transmitted optical power as a function of waveguide length is shown for two other chips showing waveguide losses of 4.7 ± 0.6 dB/cm and 9.6 ± 1.2 dB/cm, respectively; in the latter case, the chip was not subjected to the piranha etch. For all data series, the fluctuations due to changes in the OPG/DFG power over a period of around 40 seconds are shown in the error bars. A best fit line is also shown, from which the waveguide loss is derived.

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