Abstract

We study second harmonic generation (SHG) from non-centrosymmetric nanocrystals under linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) excitations. Theoretical models are developed for SHG from nanocrystals under both plane-wave and focused excitations. We find that the focused excitation reduces the polarization dependency of the SHG signal. We show that the SHG response under CP excitation is generally inferior to the average of LP excitations over all orientations. We verify the theory by measuring the SHG polar responses from BaTiO3 nanocrystals with a scanning confocal microscope. The experimental data agrees well with the theory.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araujo, A. M. Brito-Silva, V. I. Ivanenko, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering from BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467(4-6), 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, “Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), A103–A110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schön, F. Munhoz, A. Gasecka, S. Brustlein, and S. Brasselet, “Polarization distortion effects in polarimetric two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20891–20901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, A. M. Pena, M. Hernest, P. L. Tharaux, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, “Second harmonic imaging and scoring of collagen in fibrotic tissues,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4054–4065 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effects of axial field components on second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1167–1174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Asatryan, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. M. de Sterke, “Vector treatment of second-harmonic generation produced by tightly focused vignetted Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(12), 2206–2212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Konig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(17), 11014–11019 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1986

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asatryan, A. A.

Beaurepaire, E.

Bettinelli, M.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Botzung-Appert, E.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

P. Schön, F. Munhoz, A. Gasecka, S. Brustlein, and S. Brasselet, “Polarization distortion effects in polarimetric two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20891–20901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araujo, A. M. Brito-Silva, V. I. Ivanenko, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering from BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467(4-6), 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brustlein, S.

Campagnola, P. J.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centurion, M.

Chauvat, D.

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I. H.

Chen, P. C.

Chen, S. Y.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.-L.

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chern, G. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, S. J.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C.-K.

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, I. H. Chen, T. M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C. K. Sun, and B. L. Lin, “Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1909–1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clement, R.

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

Courvoisier, F.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cuña, E.

de Araujo, C. B.

E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araujo, A. M. Brito-Silva, V. I. Ivanenko, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering from BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467(4-6), 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Delahaye, E.

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

Deutsch, M.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dombeck, D. A.

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, “Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lin, C. Y. Hsiao, Y. Sun, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, G. J. Jan, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Monitoring the thermally induced structural transitions of collagen by use of second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 622–624 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C.-Y.

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Extermann, J.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fwu, P. T.

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gacoin, T.

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galez, C.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gasecka, A.

Grange, R.

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernest, M.

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. Y.

Hsieh, C. L.

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. T.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibanez, A.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivanenko, V. I.

E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araujo, A. M. Brito-Silva, V. I. Ivanenko, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering from BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467(4-6), 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jan, G. J.

Jaque, D.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jee, S. H.

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kachynski, A. V.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, C.

Konig, K.

K. Konig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, T. R.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwan, A. C.

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, “Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambert, Y.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le, X. L.

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Dantec, R.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Floc'h, V.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Xuan, L.

Ledoux, I.

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

Lee, H.-S.

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, B. L.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, I. H. Chen, T. M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C. K. Sun, and B. L. Lin, “Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1909–1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. J.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lin, C. Y. Hsiao, Y. Sun, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, G. J. Jan, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Monitoring the thermally induced structural transitions of collagen by use of second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 622–624 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.-J.

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

Liphardt, J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipovskii, A. A.

E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araujo, A. M. Brito-Silva, V. I. Ivanenko, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering from BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467(4-6), 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. M.

Lo, W.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lin, C. Y. Hsiao, Y. Sun, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, G. J. Jan, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Monitoring the thermally induced structural transitions of collagen by use of second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(6), 622–624 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marquier, F.

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

Millard, A. C.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, W. A.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, Y.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munhoz, F.

Nakayama, Y.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nodari, L.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nyk, M.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Onorato, R. M.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pauzauskie, P. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pena, A. M.

Perruchas, S.

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, P. B.

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piccinelli, F.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Plotnikov, S. V.

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Radenovic, A.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

Reiser, K. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

K. Konig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, J. F.

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, E. V.

E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araujo, A. M. Brito-Silva, V. I. Ivanenko, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering from BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467(4-6), 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, E. M.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roy, I.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandeau, N.

Saykally, R. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schanne-Klein, M. C.

Schön, P.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Slablab, A.

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sole, J. G.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sprecher, A.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoller, P.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Sun, C. K.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, I. H. Chen, T. M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C. K. Sun, and B. L. Lin, “Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1909–1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Tancrez, N.

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

Tard, C.

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tharaux, P. L.

Treussart, F.

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(17), 11014–11019 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeval, P.

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, “Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wnuk, P.

Wolf, J. P.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. L.

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xuan, L. L.

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H. Q.

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(17), 11014–11019 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yew, E. Y. S.

Yi, T.

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

Zhou, C.

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zielinski, M.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoumi, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(17), 11014–11019 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zyss, J.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)(3) nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 399–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. L. Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, “Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Bioconjugation of barium titanate nanocrystals with immunoglobulin G antibody for second harmonic radiation imaging probes,” Biomaterials 31(8), 2272–2277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Kuo, C. L. Wu, C. T. Hsu, W. Lo, S. J. Chiang, S. J. Lin, C. Y. Dong, and C. C. Chen, “Chemical enhancer induced changes in the mechanisms of transdermal delivery of zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials 30(16), 3002–3008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1), 493–508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330–3342 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of chi(2)/chi(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,” Biophys. J. 88(2), 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Plotnikov, A. C. Millard, P. J. Campagnola, and W. A. Mohler, “Characterization of the myosin-based source for second-harmonic generation from muscle sarcomeres,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 693–703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem,

E. Delahaye, N. Tancrez, T. Yi, I. Ledoux, J. Zyss, S. Brasselet, and R. Clement, “Second harmonic generation from individual hybrid MnPS3-based nanoparticles investigated by nonlinear microscopy,” Chem, Phys. Lett. 429, 533–537 (2006).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araujo, A. M. Brito-Silva, V. I. Ivanenko, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering from BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 467(4-6), 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

C.-K. Chou, W.-L. Chen, P. T. Fwu, S.-J. Lin, H.-S. Lee, and C.-Y. Dong, “Polarization ellipticity compensation in polarization second-harmonic generation microscopy without specimen rotation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Konig and I. Riemann, “High-resolution multiphoton tomography of human skin with subcellular spatial resolution and picosecond time resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 432–439 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. C

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

E. M. Rodríguez, A. Speghini, F. Piccinelli, L. Nodari, M. Bettinelli, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Multicolour second harmonic generation by strontium barium niobate nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

P. Schön, F. Munhoz, A. Gasecka, S. Brustlein, and S. Brasselet, “Polarization distortion effects in polarimetric two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20891–20901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wnuk, L. L. Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4652–4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, E. Cuña, C. Kasparian, Y. Mugnier, T. Feurer, and J. P. Wolf, “Nanodoublers as deep imaging markers for multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15342–15349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effects of axial field components on second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1167–1174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Strupler, A. M. Pena, M. Hernest, P. L. Tharaux, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, “Second harmonic imaging and scoring of collagen in fibrotic tissues,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4054–4065 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc'h, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In situ diagnostics of the crystalline nature of single organic nanocrystals by nonlinear microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, “Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7075–7080 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(17), 11014–11019 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, “Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small 5(24), 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. Richards, and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. 2. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series a-Mathematical and Physical Sciences 253, 358–379 (1959).

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, “Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles,” (Wiley, 1998).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Ch. 1 (Academic, New York, 1992), pp. 1–52.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1998), p. 410.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical calculation of polarization dependent SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal under a plane-wave excitation. (a) Schematic diagram of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal oriented at an arbitrary direction under a LP excitation and the SHG signal is collected by a microscope objective. (b) The polarization dependency of the total SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal. (c)(d) The polarization dependency of the SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal where the SHG signal is collected by a (c) NA 1.2 water-immersion objective and (d) NA 0.3 water-immersion objective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical calculation of the normalized SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal as a function of nanocrystal orientation under a CP plane-wave excitation. Different detection schemes are considered: total SHG response (black solid curve), collected by an NA 1.2 water-immersion objective (red dash curve), and collected by an NA 0.3 water-immersion objective (blue dash-dot curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical calculation of the tightly focused LP (X-polarized) excitation. (a) Schematic diagram of a tightly focused excitation by using a microscopic objective. The magnitude (b)-(d) and the phase (e)-(g) of the electric field of X-, Y-, Z-polarizations at the focused beam waist (Z = 0). The incidence is an X-polarized plane-wave of 812 nm wavelength which is focused by a NA 1.2 water-immersion objective in an index-matching environment. The size of the images are 6 × 6 μm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical calculation of the polarization dependent SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal in a scanning image with a tightly focused excitation (NA 1.2 water-immersion objective). (a) The polarization dependency of the total SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal. (b)(c) The polarization dependency of the SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal where the SHG signal is collected by a (b) NA 1.2 water-immersion objective and (c) NA 0.3 water-immersion objective.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical calculation of the normalized SHG response of a BaTiO3 nanocrystal as a function of nanocrystal orientation under a CP tightly focused excitation. Different detection schemes are considered: total SHG response (black solid curve), collected by an NA 1.2 water-immersion objective (red dash curve), and collected by an NA 0.3 water-immersion objective (blue dash-dot curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM image of isolated BaTiO3 nanocrystals randomly deposited on an ITO coated glass substrate for SHG polarization measurement. Most of the nanocrystals are 60-110 nm in diameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning confocal SHG image of BaTiO3 nanocrystals on an ITO coated glass substrate. The size of the image is 30 ´ 30 μm2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) (b) Polarization dependent SHG response of two representative BaTiO3 nanocrystals measured by a scanning confocal microscope. The experimental data are shown as black dots and the theoretical fits are shown as red lines.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative SHG response of 39 BaTiO3 nanocrystals under CP and LP tightly focused excitations correlated to the nanocrystal orientations. The red solid curve is the theoretical calculation considering a tightly focused excitation, while the blue dots are the experimental results.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Evaluation of the ellipticity effect in the excitation polarization on the relative SHG response of BaTiO3 nanocrystals under CP and LP tightly focused excitations correlated to the nanocrystal orientations. The black/red curves are the theoretical calculations considering with/without ellipticity in the excitation introduced by the system, while the blue dots are the experimental results.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relative standard deviation of the SHG signal

Equations (7)

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P ( ) =     d E P ( ω ) E P ( ω ) = [ 0 0 0 0 d 1 5 0 0 0 0 d 1 5 0 0 d 3 1 d 3 1 d 3 3 0 0 0 ] [ Ε C X 2 Ε C Y 2 Ε C Z 2 2   Ε C Y Ε C Z 2   Ε C X Ε C Z 2   Ε C X Ε C Y ] ,
W 0 = ck 4 V 2 12   π   ε 0 | P ( ) | 2 ,
E ( 2 ω ) ( R ) [ 0 0 0 cos θ cos ϕ cos θ sin ϕ sin ϕ sin ϕ cos ϕ 0 ] [ P X P Y P Z ] e ^ R e ^ Θ e ^ Φ ,
η = 0 Ω 0 2 π | E ( 2 ω ) ( R ) | 2 sin θ d ϕ d θ 0 π 0 2 π | E ( 2 ω ) ( R ) | 2 sin θ d ϕ d θ .
E X ( r , ϕ ) = i [ f 0 ( r ) + f 2 ( r ) cos ( 2 ϕ ) ] E Y ( r , ϕ ) = i f 2 ( r ) sin ( 2 ϕ ) , E Z ( r , ϕ ) = 2 f 1 ( r ) sin ( ϕ )
f 0 ( r ) = 0 Ω cos θ s i n θ ( 1 + cos θ ) J 0 ( k r sin θ ) d θ f 1 ( r ) = 0 Ω cos θ s i n 2 θ J 1 ( k r sin θ ) d θ , f 2 ( r ) = 0 Ω cos θ sin θ ( 1 cos θ ) J 2 ( k r sin θ ) d θ
ρ CP/LP ( θ 0 ) = W CP ( θ 0 ) 0 W LP ( θ 0 ) / ,

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