Abstract

A high-performance heterojunction ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on N,N’-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N’-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) and 2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) has been fabricated. The J-V characteristic curves of the device demonstrate a more than 4 orders of magnitude difference when illuminated under a 350 nm UV light and in the dark at + 3 V. The device exhibits high sensitivity in the 300–420 nm region with the peak located around 350 nm. A high photocurrent response of 4.5 A/W at +3 V under an incident intensity of 60 μW/cm2 was achieved. These results indicate that the NPB/PBD heterojunction structure device might be used as low-cost UV photodetectors.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Oliver and H. Moseley, “The use of diode array spectroradiometers for dosimetry in phototherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(24), 4411–4421 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Tuzzolino, “Silicon photodiode vacuum ultraviolet detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35(10), 1332 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. D. Baertsch and J. R. Richardson, “An Ag-GaAs Schottky-barrier ultraviolet detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 229 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Photovoltaic Schottky ultraviolet detectors fabricated on boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033504 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, “High response organic visible-blind ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093516 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. S. C. Tse, S. W. Tsang, and S. K. So, “Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063708 (2006).
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  17. H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. C. Tse, K. K. Tsung, and S. K. So, “Single-layer organic light-emitting diodes using naphthyl diamine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213502 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
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  20. R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Schroeder and B. Ullrich, “Photovoltaic hybrid device with broad tunable spectral response achieved by organic/inorganic thin-film heteropairing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 556 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Electro-optical response of ion-irradiated 4H-SiC Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, Y. Vygranenko, and A. Nathan, “ZnO-based p-i-n and n-i-p heterostructure ultraviolet sensors: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 114508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, K. K. Tsung, and S. K. So, “Single-layer organic light-emitting diodes using naphthyl diamine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, “High response organic visible-blind ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Photovoltaic Schottky ultraviolet detectors fabricated on boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, K. C. Kwok, and S. K. So, “Electron transport in naphthylamine-based organic compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, S. W. Tsang, and S. K. So, “Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Schroeder and B. Ullrich, “Photovoltaic hybrid device with broad tunable spectral response achieved by organic/inorganic thin-film heteropairing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 556 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Oliver and H. Moseley, “The use of diode array spectroradiometers for dosimetry in phototherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(24), 4411–4421 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. D. Baertsch and J. R. Richardson, “An Ag-GaAs Schottky-barrier ultraviolet detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. Tuzzolino, “Silicon photodiode vacuum ultraviolet detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35(10), 1332 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adam, D.

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adès, D.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahyi, C.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, J.

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Photovoltaic Schottky ultraviolet detectors fabricated on boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, N. R.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baertsch, R. D.

R. D. Baertsch and J. R. Richardson, “An Ag-GaAs Schottky-barrier ultraviolet detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bao, S. N.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, J.

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castex, M.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chénais, S.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, A.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choopun, S.

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choukri, H.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dahal, R.

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Damilano, B.

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duboz, J. Y.

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Y.

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forget, S.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fung, M. K.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geffroy, B.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, A.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koide, Y.

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Photovoltaic Schottky ultraviolet detectors fabricated on boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, K. C.

S. C. Tse, K. C. Kwok, and S. K. So, “Electron transport in naphthylamine-based organic compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S. L.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. A.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M.

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Photovoltaic Schottky ultraviolet detectors fabricated on boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, H.

H. Oliver and H. Moseley, “The use of diode array spectroradiometers for dosimetry in phototherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(24), 4411–4421 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakarmi, M. L.

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narasimhan, K. L.

D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, “High response organic visible-blind ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, A.

K. Wang, Y. Vygranenko, and A. Nathan, “ZnO-based p-i-n and n-i-p heterostructure ultraviolet sensors: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 114508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nebesny, K. W.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, H.

H. Oliver and H. Moseley, “The use of diode array spectroradiometers for dosimetry in phototherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(24), 4411–4421 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, M.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parkinson, B. A.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Preble, E. A.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raineri, V.

F. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Electro-optical response of ion-irradiated 4H-SiC Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ray, D.

D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, “High response organic visible-blind ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reverchon, J. L.

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J. R.

R. D. Baertsch and J. R. Richardson, “An Ag-GaAs Schottky-barrier ultraviolet detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Roccaforte, F.

F. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Electro-optical response of ion-irradiated 4H-SiC Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rogalski, A.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schlaf, R.

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, R.

R. Schroeder and B. Ullrich, “Photovoltaic hybrid device with broad tunable spectral response achieved by organic/inorganic thin-film heteropairing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 556 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sciuto, F.

F. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Electro-optical response of ion-irradiated 4H-SiC Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semond, F.

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R. P.

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siove, A.

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

So, S. K.

S. C. Tse, K. K. Tsung, and S. K. So, “Single-layer organic light-emitting diodes using naphthyl diamine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, K. C. Kwok, and S. K. So, “Electron transport in naphthylamine-based organic compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, S. W. Tsang, and S. K. So, “Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tin, C.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, S. W.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, S. W.

S. C. Tse, S. W. Tsang, and S. K. So, “Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tse, S. C.

S. C. Tse, K. K. Tsung, and S. K. So, “Single-layer organic light-emitting diodes using naphthyl diamine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, S. W. Tsang, and S. K. So, “Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, K. C. Kwok, and S. K. So, “Electron transport in naphthylamine-based organic compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsung, K. K.

S. C. Tse, K. K. Tsung, and S. K. So, “Single-layer organic light-emitting diodes using naphthyl diamine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuzzolino, J.

J. Tuzzolino, “Silicon photodiode vacuum ultraviolet detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35(10), 1332 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, B.

R. Schroeder and B. Ullrich, “Photovoltaic hybrid device with broad tunable spectral response achieved by organic/inorganic thin-film heteropairing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 556 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vispute, R. D.

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vygranenko, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Vygranenko, and A. Nathan, “ZnO-based p-i-n and n-i-p heterostructure ultraviolet sensors: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 114508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, Y. Vygranenko, and A. Nathan, “ZnO-based p-i-n and n-i-p heterostructure ultraviolet sensors: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 114508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. D.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, N. M.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

Y. Zhou, C. Ahyi, C. Tin, J. Williams, M. Park, D. Kim, A. Cheng, D. Wang, A. Hanser, E. A. Preble, N. M. Williams, and K. Evans, “Fabrication and device characteristics of Schottky-type bulk GaN-based ‘visible-blind’ ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, Z. Y. Fan, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “200 nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Electro-optical response of ion-irradiated 4H-SiC Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Photovoltaic Schottky ultraviolet detectors fabricated on boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, “High response organic visible-blind ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Su, W. Li, B. Chu, T. Li, J. Zhu, G. Zhang, F. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chen, and C. Lee, “High response organic ultraviolet photodetector based on blend of 4,4’,4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, K. C. Kwok, and S. K. So, “Electron transport in naphthylamine-based organic compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Choukri, A. Fischer, S. Forget, S. Chénais, M. Castex, D. Adès, A. Siove, and B. Geffroy, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fine chromaticity tuning via ultrathin layer position shifting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, K. K. Tsung, and S. K. So, “Single-layer organic light-emitting diodes using naphthyl diamine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, G. He, F. Chen, T. Guo, and Y. Yang, “Degradation mechanism of phosphorescent-dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Schroeder and B. Ullrich, “Photovoltaic hybrid device with broad tunable spectral response achieved by organic/inorganic thin-film heteropairing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 556 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (8)

R. D. Baertsch and J. R. Richardson, “An Ag-GaAs Schottky-barrier ultraviolet detector,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 229 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. Schlaf, B. A. Parkinson, P. A. Lee, K. W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. R. Armstrong, “Photoemission spectroscopy of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(12), 6729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tse, S. W. Tsang, and S. K. So, “Polymeric conducting anode for small organic transporting molecules in dark injection experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, Y. Vygranenko, and A. Nathan, “ZnO-based p-i-n and n-i-p heterostructure ultraviolet sensors: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 114508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Duboz, J. L. Reverchon, D. Adam, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Submicron metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet detectors based on AlGaN grown on silicon: Results and simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

H. Oliver and H. Moseley, “The use of diode array spectroradiometers for dosimetry in phototherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(24), 4411–4421 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Tuzzolino, “Silicon photodiode vacuum ultraviolet detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35(10), 1332 (1964).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical structures of NPB and PBD, (b) energy-level diagram of the device, (c) structure of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV-visible absorption spectra of NPB (dash-dotted curve), PBD (dashed curve) and the NPB/PBD device (solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dark current (solid square) and photocurrent (vacant circle) vs. voltage for the device illuminated by a 60 μW/cm2 UV light at 350 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photocurrent spectral responses of the heterojunction device based on the ITO/NPB(80 nm)/PBD(40 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm) structure at an applied potential of −3 V (dashed curve) and + 3 V (solid curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum efficiency of the heterojunction device with semi-log curve at zero bias under 350 nm UV light.

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