Abstract

We propose and comprehensively investigate Si-based plasmonic waveguides as a means to confine and manipulate photonic signals. The high refractive index of Si assures strong confinement and a very high level of photonic integration with achievable waveguide separations of the order of 10 nm and waveguide bends with 500 nm radius at telecommunication wavelengths, while using Al and Cu plasmonic material platforms, makes such waveguides fully compatible with existing CMOS fabrication processes. Their potential future in hybrid electronic/photonic chips is further reinforced as various configurations have been shown to compensate SPP propagation loss. The group velocity dispersion of such waveguides allows over 10 Tb/s signal transfer rates. The figures of merit allowing comparison of passive and active functionalities achievable with various waveguides have also been introduced.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon - challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, ed., Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits (Pan Stanford Publ., 2008).
  3. J.-M. Lee, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, S. K. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Choe, W.-J. Lee, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Low bending loss metal waveguide embedded in a free-standing multilayered polymer film,” Opt. Express 17(1), 228–234 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-1-228 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Guided plasmon polariton at 2D metal corners,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2333–2342 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: metal nanostructures for subwavelength photonic devices,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1214–1220 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Guided plasmonic modes in nanorod assemblies: strong electromagnetic coupling regime,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7460–7470 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7460 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. O’Connor, M. McCurry, B. Lafferty, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic waveguide as an efficient transducer for high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “All-optical active components for dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(8), 1581–1584 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic press, New York, 1984).
  17. R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12174–12182 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12174 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 161401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “All-optical active components for dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(8), 1581–1584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O’Connor, M. McCurry, B. Lafferty, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic waveguide as an efficient transducer for high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lee, S. Park, M.-S. Kim, S. K. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Choe, W.-J. Lee, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Low bending loss metal waveguide embedded in a free-standing multilayered polymer film,” Opt. Express 17(1), 228–234 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-1-228 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Guided plasmonic modes in nanorod assemblies: strong electromagnetic coupling regime,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7460–7470 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7460 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 161401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: metal nanostructures for subwavelength photonic devices,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1214–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Atkinson, R.

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 161401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12174–12182 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12174 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, R.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choe, J.-S.

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 161401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Vlaminck, I.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P.

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendren, W.

Holmgaard, T.

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

Kim, J. T.

Kim, M.-S.

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “All-optical active components for dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(8), 1581–1584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, B.

D. O’Connor, M. McCurry, B. Lafferty, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic waveguide as an efficient transducer for high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lagae, L.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-M.

Lee, M.-H.

Lee, W.-J.

Lipson, M.

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: metal nanostructures for subwavelength photonic devices,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1214–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCurry, M.

D. O’Connor, M. McCurry, B. Lafferty, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic waveguide as an efficient transducer for high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neutens, P.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, D.

Park, S.

Park, S. K.

Pollard, R.

Qiu, M.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Guided plasmon polariton at 2D metal corners,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2333–2342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Dorpe, P.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurtz, G. A.

Yan, M.

Yan, W.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “All-optical active components for dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(8), 1581–1584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connor, M. McCurry, B. Lafferty, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic waveguide as an efficient transducer for high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 310–312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Guided plasmonic modes in nanorod assemblies: strong electromagnetic coupling regime,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7460–7470 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7460 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connor, M. McCurry, B. Lafferty, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic waveguide as an efficient transducer for high-density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: metal nanostructures for subwavelength photonic devices,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1214–1220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “All-optical active components for dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(8), 1581–1584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 161401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, ed., Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits (Pan Stanford Publ., 2008).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic press, New York, 1984).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SPP dispersion and (b) propagation length for a semi-infinite Si/metal interface and for a TM00 mode in a 100 × 300 nm2 Si-based DLSPP waveguide. The results are presented for aluminium and gold, the dielectric constants were taken from Ref. 16. Insets: in (a) the color map presenting the power flow along a 100 × 300 nm2 Si/Al waveguide for λ = 1.55 μm (0.8 eV); in (b) group velocity dispersion parameter β 2 as a function of frequency calculated for the same waveguide. Bends A and B of the dispersions are discussed in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Effective refractive index, (b) propagation length, (c) effective area, and (d) figure of merit M1 for Si-SPP mode as a function of waveguide width w and height h. Insets: Field maps presenting the absolute value of the power flow along the waveguide for waveguide cross-sections of 100 × 150 nm2 and 200 × 300 nm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Figures of merit for Si/Al SPP waveguide defined for monitoring performance with respect to (a) waveguide separation, MA and (b) MZI and WRR functionalities, MB . (c) MC combines MA , MB , and bend radius performance. Please see the text for details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Effective refractive index, (b) propagation length, (c) effective mode area, and (d) figure of merit MC for Si-SPP waveguide with height h = 300 nm as a function of its width w for various metals: Au, Al and Cu.

Metrics