Abstract

We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Wavefront-aberration sorting and correction for a dual-deformable-mirror adaptive-optics system,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2602–2604 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum Permissible Exposures for Ocular Safety (ANSI 2000), with Emphasis on Ophthalmic Devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1250–1265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Chen, S. M. Jones, D. A. Silva, and S. S. Olivier, “High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1305–1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Chen, D. M. de Bruin, C. Kerbage, and J. F. de Boer, “Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16390–16399 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-16390 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1327–1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(2), 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson, “A Multiresolution Spline with Application to Image Mosaics,” ACM Trans. Graph. 2(4), 217–236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adelson, E. H.

P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson, “A Multiresolution Spline with Application to Image Mosaics,” ACM Trans. Graph. 2(4), 217–236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Ahnelt, P. K.

Baumann, B.

Bigelow, C. E.

Bizheva, K.

Blinder, S.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, B.

Bower, B. A.

Burns, S. A.

Burt, P. J.

P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson, “A Multiresolution Spline with Application to Image Mosaics,” ACM Trans. Graph. 2(4), 217–236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

C. Torti, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19382 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy,” Ophthalmology 113(6), 1014–1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Chen, D. C.

Chen, Y. L.

Choi, S.

Chui, T. Y. P.

Chung, M.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy,” Ophthalmology 113(6), 1014–1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(2), 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Bruin, D. M.

Delori, F. C.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Drexler, W.

Dubra, A.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Falkner-Radler, C.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, N. Iftimia, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact adaptive optics line scanning ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10242–10258 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-10242 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1327–1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, “Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4621–4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, “Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(26), 1542–1549 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-26-1542 .
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gee, B. P.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, Y.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glittenberg, C.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gray, D. C.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, N. Iftimia, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact adaptive optics line scanning ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10242–10258 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-10242 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1327–1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, “Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4621–4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, “Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(26), 1542–1549 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-26-1542 .
[PubMed]

Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

C. Torti, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19382 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J. C.

Kurokawa, K.

Laut, S.

Liang, J. Z.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luque, S.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magill, J. C.

Makita, S.

Masella, B. D.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, M.

Merigan, W. H.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Morgan, J. E.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Neitz, J.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Pircher, M.

Povazay, B.

Považay, B.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy,” Ophthalmology 113(6), 1014–1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405 .
[PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S.

Sasaki, K.

Sattmann, H.

Schubert, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scoles, D.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, D. A.

Sliney, D. H.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(2), 169–180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H. X.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torti, C.

Unterhuber, A.

Ustun, T. E.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Webb, R. H.

Werner, J. S.

White, M. A.

Williams, D. R.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy,” Ophthalmology 113(6), 1014–1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
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D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfing, J. I.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy,” Ophthalmology 113(6), 1014–1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zeiler, F.

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M. T.

Zou, W.

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 467–473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Sattmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography at 1050 nm versus 800 nm in retinal pathologies: enhanced performance and choroidal penetration in cataract patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, “Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, “High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy,” Ophthalmology 113(6), 1014–1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405 .
[PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4380 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, K. Sasaki, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, B. Cense, and Y. Yasuno, “Simultaneous high-resolution retinal imaging and high-penetration choroidal imaging by one-micrometer adaptive optics optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8515–8527 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8515 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm,” Opt. Express 11(17), 1980–1986 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-17-1980 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, “In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3252–3258 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3252 .
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Y. L. Chen, D. M. de Bruin, C. Kerbage, and J. F. de Boer, “Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16390–16399 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-16390 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, “Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(26), 1542–1549 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-26-1542 .
[PubMed]

C. Torti, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19382 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. D. Ferguson, N. Iftimia, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact adaptive optics line scanning ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10242–10258 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-10242 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(22), 8461–8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. E. Ustun, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Real-time processing for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a field programmable gate array,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Vis. Neurosci. (1)

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, “Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors: variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy,” Vis. Neurosci. 9(2), 169–180 (1992).
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Other (8)

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J. R. Zawadzki, M. S. Jones, D. Chen, S. S. Choi, W. J. Evans, S. S. Olivier, and S. J. Werner, “Combined adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics: scanning laser ophthalmoscopy system for retinal imaging”, in Ophthalmic Technologies XIX, F. Manns, P. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds., Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630F (2009).

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, Z. Deng, W. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics SLO with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am.A (2010).

D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, N. Iftimia, N. Lue, and D. Ferguson, “Multimodal Adaptive Optics for Depth Enhanced High Resolution Ophthalmic Imaging”, in Ophthalmic Technologies XX, F. Manns, P. G. Söderberg, and A. Ho, eds., Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630J (2010).

M. K. Yoon, A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, C. Nakanishi, L.-J. C. Wong, Q. Zhang, L. Gillum, A. Green, and J. L. Duncan, “Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Images Demonstrate Abnormal Cone Structure in a Family with the Mitochondrial DNA T8993C Mutation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. doi:10.1167/iovs.08–2029 (2008).

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “1 mu m wavelength adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope”, in Ophthalmic Technologies XIX, F. Manns, P.G. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds., Proc. SPIE 7163, 71630I, 2009.

B. Potsaid, J. Liu, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, S. Barry, J. Jiang, A. Cable, V. Manjunath, J. S. Duker, and G. J. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed volumetric OCT ophthalmic imaging at 800nm and 1050nm”, in Ophthalmic Technologies XX, F. Manns, P.G. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds., Proc. SPIE 7163, 2010.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (3210 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (12827 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2331 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of multimodal AO retinal imager. D: dichroic beamsplitter, P: pellicle beamsplitter, FC: fiber coupler, FG: framegrabber. See text for other abbreviations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical performance modeled in Zemax. (a) Optical layout with 6 deg. off-axis scan (from the pole of the paraxial eye). Wavefront function map (b) without and (c) with AO compensation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SLO timing board diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AO performance in artificial targets. Shown are the measured PSF (left column) from light focused on diffuse target and horizontal and vertical line profiles (right column). Measurements were made: (a),(b) at a retinal conjugate in between the DMs; (c),(d) at a second retinal conjugate in front of the DMs (towards the eye) without AO correction; (e),(f) at the second retinal conjugate with AO correction; (g),(h) in a model eye without AO correction; and (i),(j) in a model eye with AO correction. FWHM values are listed on the graphs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AO performance in a human eye. (a)-(c) Wavefront error map and (d)-(e) point spread function for no AO correction, single DM, and dual DM correction. (g) Time course of AO correction. (h) RMS error by Zernike order.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LSO (a), AOSLO (b), and AO-SSOCT (c) images collected from four human subjects aged 23 to 50. SLO images are single 2 deg scans taken near the fovea (visible at the bottom of the frame). LSO and OCT images are composite images created by averaging between 5 and 10 frames. OCT and SLO scalebars are 100 µm. LSO scalebar is 1 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Qualitative comparison of increased choroidal penetration at 1 µm wavelength. (a) and (c) are single and 4-frame composite 850 nm AO-SDOCT images. (b) and (d) are single and 4-frame composite 1 µm AO-SSOCT images. The scalebar is 100 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

AOSLO montage in the central macula (Media 1, Media 2).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Automatic montage (left). (Media 3). Manual montage (right) with manual tracing of the blood vessels to illustrate the a-vascular zone.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photoreceptor counting results.

Metrics