Abstract

We present the explicit dynamics process of Rydberg cesium atoms initially experiencing a repulsive van der Waals (vdW) interaction by measuring the line width and intensity of the Rydberg ionization spectra. The signals of Rydberg atoms and free ions are recorded simultaneously within an initial 3.5 μs delay time between the excitation laser and the ramp electric field. For high-density gases, a rapid decrease of Rydberg atoms and an increase of free ions are observed, which is not found to be the case for low-density gases. The experimental results indicate that superradiance is the main cause of the redistribution of Rydberg atoms from the repulsive potential to the attractive potential for high density, which provides the initial ionization. The corresponding theoretical calculation is also given.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. J. Tanner, J. Han, E. S. Shuman, and T. F. Gallagher, “Many-body ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043002 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Giese, and M. Weidemüller, “Modeling many-particle mechanical effects of an interacting Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 054702 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. O. Day, E. Brekke, and T. G. Walker, “Dynamics of low-density ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 052712 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Singer, J. Stanojevic, M. Weidemüller, and R. Côté, “Long-range interactions between alkali Rydberg atom pairs correlated to the ns–ns, np–np and nd–nd asymptotes,” J. Phys. B 38, S295–S307 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, and W. Michael, “Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. L. Oliveira, M. W. Mancini, V. S. Bagnato, and L. G. Marcassa, “Rydberg cold collisions dominated by ultralong range potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. Robicheaux, “Ionization due to the interaction between two Rydberg atoms,” J. Phys. B 38, S333–S342 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

P. J. Tanner, J. Han, E. S. Shuman, and T. F. Gallagher, “Many-body ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. Day, E. Brekke, and T. G. Walker, “Dynamics of low-density ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 052712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Giese, and M. Weidemüller, “Modeling many-particle mechanical effects of an interacting Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 054702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

W. Li, P. J. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, “Dipole–dipole excitation and ionization in an ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, J. Stanojevic, M. Weidemüller, and R. Côté, “Long-range interactions between alkali Rydberg atom pairs correlated to the ns–ns, np–np and nd–nd asymptotes,” J. Phys. B 38, S295–S307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Robicheaux, “Ionization due to the interaction between two Rydberg atoms,” J. Phys. B 38, S333–S342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. L. Oliveira, M. W. Mancini, V. S. Bagnato, and L. G. Marcassa, “Rydberg cold collisions dominated by ultralong range potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, and W. Michael, “Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akulin, V.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amthor, T.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Giese, and M. Weidemüller, “Modeling many-particle mechanical effects of an interacting Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 054702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, W. R.

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bagnato, V. S.

A. L. Oliveira, M. W. Mancini, V. S. Bagnato, and L. G. Marcassa, “Rydberg cold collisions dominated by ultralong range potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brekke, E.

J. O. Day, E. Brekke, and T. G. Walker, “Dynamics of low-density ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 052712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choteau, A.

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chotia, A.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comparat, D.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Compared, D.

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, R.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Singer, J. Stanojevic, M. Weidemüller, and R. Côté, “Long-range interactions between alkali Rydberg atom pairs correlated to the ns–ns, np–np and nd–nd asymptotes,” J. Phys. B 38, S295–S307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, J. O.

J. O. Day, E. Brekke, and T. G. Walker, “Dynamics of low-density ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 052712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Tomasi, F.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denskat, J.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L. M.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyler, E.

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyler, E. E.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farooqi, S.

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farooqi, S. M.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. G.

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fioretti, A.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, T. F.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Tanner, J. Han, E. S. Shuman, and T. F. Gallagher, “Many-body ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, P. J. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, “Dipole–dipole excitation and ionization in an ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giese, S.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Giese, and M. Weidemüller, “Modeling many-particle mechanical effects of an interacting Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 054702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gould, P.

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, P. L.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

P. J. Tanner, J. Han, E. S. Shuman, and T. F. Gallagher, “Many-body ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaksch, D.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, S. T.

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koštrun, M.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, S.

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laburthe Tolra, B.

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, and W. Michael, “Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, A. L.

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. Y.

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, P. J. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, “Dipole–dipole excitation and ionization in an ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancini, M. W.

A. L. Oliveira, M. W. Mancini, V. S. Bagnato, and L. G. Marcassa, “Rydberg cold collisions dominated by ultralong range potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcassa, L.

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcassa, L. G.

A. L. Oliveira, M. W. Mancini, V. S. Bagnato, and L. G. Marcassa, “Rydberg cold collisions dominated by ultralong range potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, W.

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, and W. Michael, “Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourachko, I.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nosbaum, P.

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, A. L.

A. L. Oliveira, M. W. Mancini, V. S. Bagnato, and L. G. Marcassa, “Rydberg cold collisions dominated by ultralong range potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillet, P.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reetz-Lamour, M.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Giese, and M. Weidemüller, “Modeling many-particle mechanical effects of an interacting Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 054702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robicheaux, F.

F. Robicheaux, “Ionization due to the interaction between two Rydberg atoms,” J. Phys. B 38, S333–S342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, M. P.

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, and W. Michael, “Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuman, E. S.

P. J. Tanner, J. Han, E. S. Shuman, and T. F. Gallagher, “Many-body ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, K.

K. Singer, J. Stanojevic, M. Weidemüller, and R. Côté, “Long-range interactions between alkali Rydberg atom pairs correlated to the ns–ns, np–np and nd–nd asymptotes,” J. Phys. B 38, S295–S307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanojevic, J.

K. Singer, J. Stanojevic, M. Weidemüller, and R. Côté, “Long-range interactions between alkali Rydberg atom pairs correlated to the ns–ns, np–np and nd–nd asymptotes,” J. Phys. B 38, S295–S307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, P. J.

P. J. Tanner, J. Han, E. S. Shuman, and T. F. Gallagher, “Many-body ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, P. J. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, “Dipole–dipole excitation and ionization in an ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, D. A.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tong, D.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veale, J. R.

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viteau, M.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, T.

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrinceanu, D.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. G.

J. O. Day, E. Brekke, and T. G. Walker, “Dynamics of low-density ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 052712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Giese, and M. Weidemüller, “Modeling many-particle mechanical effects of an interacting Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 054702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, J. Stanojevic, M. Weidemüller, and R. Côté, “Long-range interactions between alkali Rydberg atom pairs correlated to the ns–ns, np–np and nd–nd asymptotes,” J. Phys. B 38, S295–S307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westermann, S.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, S. F.

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. J.

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. M.

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

L. J. Zhang, Z. G. Feng, A. L. Li, J. M. Zhao, C. Y. Li, and S. T. Jia, “The experimental research of spontaneous evolution from ultracold Rydberg atoms to plasma,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1362–1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

K. Singer, J. Stanojevic, M. Weidemüller, and R. Côté, “Long-range interactions between alkali Rydberg atom pairs correlated to the ns–ns, np–np and nd–nd asymptotes,” J. Phys. B 38, S295–S307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Robicheaux, “Ionization due to the interaction between two Rydberg atoms,” J. Phys. B 38, S333–S342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, D. Comparat, D. A. Tate, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Melting a frozen Rydberg gas with an attractive potential,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 040704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Giese, and M. Weidemüller, “Modeling many-particle mechanical effects of an interacting Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 054702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, S. F. Yelin, R. Côté, E. E. Eyler, S. M. Farooqi, P. L. Gould, M. Koštrun, D. Tong, and D. Vrinceanu, “Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Day, E. Brekke, and T. G. Walker, “Dynamics of low-density ultracold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 052712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. P. Robinson, B. Laburthe Tolra, and W. Michael, “Noel, T. F. Gallagher, and P. Pillet, “Spontaneous evolution of Rydberg atoms into an ultracold plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4466–4469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oliveira, M. W. Mancini, V. S. Bagnato, and L. G. Marcassa, “Rydberg cold collisions dominated by ultralong range potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Anderson, J. R. Veale, and T. F. Gallagher, “Resonant dipole–dipole energy transfer in a nearly frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249–252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Mourachko, D. Comparat, F. de Tomasi, A. Fioretti, P. Nosbaum, V. Akulin, and P. Pillet, “Many-body effects in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Tong, S. Farooqi, J. Stanojevic, S. Krishnan, Y. Zhang, R. Côté, E. Eyler, and P. Gould, “Local blockade of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 063001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vogt, M. Viteau, J. M. Zhao, A. Choteau, D. Compared, and P. Pillet, “Dipole blockade at Förster resonances in high resolution laser excitation of Rydberg states of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, P. J. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, “Dipole–dipole excitation and ionization in an ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Tanner, J. Han, E. S. Shuman, and T. F. Gallagher, “Many-body ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der Waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated potential curves of 40D + 40D (solid black line), 41P + 38F (dashed red line), 41P + 40D (dash-dotted blue line), and 41P + 37F (dotted blue line) pairs. The energy of 40D + 40D pairs in the infinite distance is designated as the relative zero of potential.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity of Rydberg atoms in different states (40D3/2, red circle; 40D5/2, black square) versus the power of the 510 nm laser. The solid lines show fitted saturation functions (see text). Inset: The spectra of free ions (dashed red line) and 40D5/2 Rydberg atoms (solid black line) at delay time of 2 μs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Ionization spectra of Rydberg atom in 40D5/2 state for different delay time of 0.5 μs (dotted blue line), 1 μs (dashed red line) and 1.5 μs (solid black line), respectively. (b) Line width of 40D5/2 Rydberg atom signals versus delay time. (c) Intensity of 40D5/2 Rydberg atoms (black squares) and free ion signals (red circles) in different delay times. The initial density of Rydberg atoms is 3.5 × 1010cm−3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Line width of 40D5/2 Rydberg atom signals versus delay time. (b) The intensity of 40D5/2 Rydberg atoms (black squares) and free ions signals (red circles) in different delay times. The initial density of Rydberg atoms is 6.2 × 109cm−3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Inter-nuclear separation of Rydberg atom pair versus time for different initial inter-nuclear separation (solid black line, R0 = 1.7 μm; dashed blue line, R0 = 3.0 μm).

Equations (1)

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d R / d t = 2 / M [ C 6 ( 1 / R 0 6 1 / R 6 ) C 7 ( 1 / R 0 7 1 / R 7 ) ] ( 1 / 2 ) .

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