Abstract

We demonstrate a method to directly measure the electric-field-induced birefringence of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) composite. The induced birefringence follows the extended Kerr effect well and is approximately 3X the ordinary refractive index change. The measured data are validated by comparing the simulated and measured voltage-dependent transmittance with an in-plane switching cell. The impact of these results to the material optimization of emerging BPLC displays is discussed.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).
  10. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(1), 197–206 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. L. Cloud, Optical Methods of Engineering Analysis (Cambridge, New York, 1998).

2010 (3)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(1), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1875 (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).

Anderson, W. P.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baird, G.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brinkman, W. F.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. W.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(1), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haseba, Y.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J.

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).

Kikuchi, H.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meiboom, S.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sethna, J. P.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S. I.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Haseba, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in nanostructured chiral liquid-crystal composites over a wide-temperature range,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2311–2315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(1), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: Dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337–348 (1875).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. L. Cloud, Optical Methods of Engineering Analysis (Cambridge, New York, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Abbe refractometer for measuring the refractive index of PS-BPLC in voltage-off state

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical setup for Senarmont method. P: Polarizer, λ/4: quarter-wave plate, A: analyzer. The angle indicates the azimuthal angle of the transmission axis (for P and A) or fast axis (for sample and λ/4 plate).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured effective birefringence at different incident angles (circle) at V=140 Vrms and the fitting curve (red line) using Eq. (4). λ=633 nm and T~23°C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Electric field dependent ordinary refractive index (black squares) and extraordinary refractive index (red circles); (b) induced birefringence (circles), linear fitting in the low field region (blue straight line) and fitting using Eq. (5) (red curve). λ=633 nm and T~23°C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio of Δn to δn. The assumption (Δn /δn =3) is shown in red line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of experimental data (solid blue line) of an IPS cell with simulation results (dashed red lines). λ = 633 nm and T~23°C.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ n ( E ) = n i n o ( E ) .
E o u t = W ( π / 2 ) R ( 45 o ) W ( Γ ) E i n ,
Γ ( E ) = 2 π λ n o ( E ) d [ 1 sin 2 θ n e 2 ( E ) 1 sin 2 θ n o 2 ( E ) ] .
Δ n e f f ( E ) = λ Γ ( E ) 2 π d = n o ( E ) ( 1 sin 2 θ n e 2 ( E ) 1 sin 2 θ n o 2 ( E ) ) .
Δ n = Δ n s a t ( 1 exp [ ( E E s ) 2 ] ) ,

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