Abstract

PURPOSE: To develop a fully automated algorithm (AP) to perform a volumetric measure of the optic disc using conventional stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photographs, and to compare algorithm-produced parameters with manual photogrammetry (MP), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two stereoscopic optic disc photographs (61 subjects) were analyzed. Disc area, rim area, cup area, cup/disc area ratio, vertical cup/disc ratio, rim volume and cup volume were automatically computed by the algorithm. Latent variable measurement error models were used to assess measurement reproducibility for the four techniques. RESULTS: AP had better reproducibility for disc area and cup volume and worse reproducibility for cup/disc area ratio and vertical cup/disc ratio, when the measurements were compared to the MP, SLO and OCT methods. CONCLUSION: AP provides a useful technique for an objective quantitative assessment of 3D ONH structures.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, and P. Chew, “Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(33 issue. 3), 473–482 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, C. Zheng, and P. C. Kuan, “Three dimensional optic disc visualisation from stereo images via dual registration and ocular media optical correction,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

K. Deguchi, D. Kawamata, K. Mizutani, H. Hontani, and K. Wakabayashi, ““3D fundus shape reconstruction and display from stereo fundus images,” IEICE Trans. INF. & SYST,” E 83-D(7), (2000).

1998

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

R. Varma and G. L. Spaeth, “The PAR IS 2000: a new system for retinal digital image analysis,” Ophthalmic Surg. 19(3), 183–192 (1988).
[PubMed]

1986

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, and B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104(7), 1035–1039 (1986).
[PubMed]

1972

O. C. Holm, B. Becker, C. F. Asseff, and S. M. Podos, “Volume of the optic disk cup,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 73(6), 876–881 (1972).
[PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alward, W. L. M.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asseff, C. F.

O. C. Holm, B. Becker, C. F. Asseff, and S. M. Podos, “Volume of the optic disk cup,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 73(6), 876–881 (1972).
[PubMed]

Becker, B.

O. C. Holm, B. Becker, C. F. Asseff, and S. M. Podos, “Volume of the optic disk cup,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 73(6), 876–881 (1972).
[PubMed]

Bellezza, A. J.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilonick, R. A.

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgoyne, C. F.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caprioli, J.

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, and B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104(7), 1035–1039 (1986).
[PubMed]

Chew, P.

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, and P. Chew, “Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(33 issue. 3), 473–482 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutatape, O.

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, and P. Chew, “Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(33 issue. 3), 473–482 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, C. Zheng, and P. C. Kuan, “Three dimensional optic disc visualisation from stereo images via dual registration and ocular media optical correction,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deguchi, K.

K. Deguchi, D. Kawamata, K. Mizutani, H. Hontani, and K. Wakabayashi, ““3D fundus shape reconstruction and display from stereo fundus images,” IEICE Trans. INF. & SYST,” E 83-D(7), (2000).

Downs, J. C.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fingert, J. H.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, P. J.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garway-Heath, D. F.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenlee, E. C.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, R. T.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitchings, R. A.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holm, O. C.

O. C. Holm, B. Becker, C. F. Asseff, and S. M. Podos, “Volume of the optic disk cup,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 73(6), 876–881 (1972).
[PubMed]

Hontani, H.

K. Deguchi, D. Kawamata, K. Mizutani, H. Hontani, and K. Wakabayashi, ““3D fundus shape reconstruction and display from stereo fundus images,” IEICE Trans. INF. & SYST,” E 83-D(7), (2000).

Hrynchak, P.

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchings, N.

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffe, G. J.

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D.

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagemann, L.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawamata, D.

K. Deguchi, D. Kawamata, K. Mizutani, H. Hontani, and K. Wakabayashi, ““3D fundus shape reconstruction and display from stereo fundus images,” IEICE Trans. INF. & SYST,” E 83-D(7), (2000).

Kim, C. Y.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. S.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingbeil, U.

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, and B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104(7), 1035–1039 (1986).
[PubMed]

Kuan, P. C.

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, C. Zheng, and P. C. Kuan, “Three dimensional optic disc visualisation from stereo images via dual registration and ocular media optical correction,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, Y. H.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, T.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manassakorn, A.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizutani, K.

K. Deguchi, D. Kawamata, K. Mizutani, H. Hontani, and K. Wakabayashi, ““3D fundus shape reconstruction and display from stereo fundus images,” IEICE Trans. INF. & SYST,” E 83-D(7), (2000).

Mumcuoglu, T.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podos, S. M.

O. C. Holm, B. Becker, C. F. Asseff, and S. M. Podos, “Volume of the optic disk cup,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 73(6), 876–881 (1972).
[PubMed]

Pope, B.

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, and B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104(7), 1035–1039 (1986).
[PubMed]

Rintalan, C. J.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudnicka, A. R.

D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sears, M.

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, and B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104(7), 1035–1039 (1986).
[PubMed]

Shuba, L.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, T.

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaeth, G. L.

R. Varma and G. L. Spaeth, “The PAR IS 2000: a new system for retinal digital image analysis,” Ophthalmic Surg. 19(3), 183–192 (1988).
[PubMed]

Sung, K. R.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, K. A.

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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Wollstein, G.

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, C.

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, C. Zheng, and P. C. Kuan, “Three dimensional optic disc visualisation from stereo images via dual registration and ocular media optical correction,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(2), 181–185 (2006).
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[PubMed]

A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, C. Zheng, and P. C. Kuan, “Three dimensional optic disc visualisation from stereo images via dual registration and ocular media optical correction,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E

K. Deguchi, D. Kawamata, K. Mizutani, H. Hontani, and K. Wakabayashi, ““3D fundus shape reconstruction and display from stereo fundus images,” IEICE Trans. INF. & SYST,” E 83-D(7), (2000).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

J. Xu, O. Chutatape, and P. Chew, “Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(33 issue. 3), 473–482 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Other

M.C. Neale, S.M. Boker, G. Xie, H.H. Maes, Mx: Statistical Modeling 6th Ed.(VCU Box 900126, Richmond, VA 23298: Department of Psychiatry.)

HRT tutorial. Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of the posterior segment with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph. http://www.heidelbergengineering.com/hrtf/hrt.html

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

: Overview of the process flow

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

: Parallel stereo image configuration

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical model of the eye and stereo fundus camera (adapted from Deguchi’s [15]).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

: Geometric model of optic nerve head (ONH) with cross sectional profile and projected image. (A) Locating cup margin points in deformable model algorithm. (B) Cross sectional profile of 3D ONH model, with definitions of various ONH parameters, i.e., disc area, rim area, cup area, rim volume and cup volume. (C) The definitions of vertical C/D ratio and C/D area ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between automatically photogrammetric algorithm and manual disc demarcation. (A) A successful example of disc demarcation. (B) An example of failure in disc demarcation due to prominent peripapillary atrophy.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative bias comparison between optic nerve head measurements of automated photogrammetry, manual photogrammetry, Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Automated photogrammetry was used as reference to all other methods

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 : Comparison of optic disc measurements (mean ± standard deviation) from automated photogrammetry (AP), manual photogrammetry (MP), Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Imprecision standard deviation of optic disc parameters measured by automated photogrammetry (AP), manual photogrammetry (MP), Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

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Table 3 Relative imprecision standard deviation ratio (adjusted by bias, 95% confidence interval) of optic disc parameters measured by automated photogrammetry (AP), manual photogrammetry (MP), Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Linear calibration between optic nerve head measurements of automated photogrammetry (AP), manual photogrammetry (MP), HRT and OCT. AP was set as reference and all measurements were accordingly adjusted.

Equations (1)

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Δ Z r = Z r Z r 0 = Δ Z 2 Z r 0 f e f e 2 Z r 0 2 f e 2 Δ Z f e + Δ Z Z r 0

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