Abstract

We demonstrate a novel high yield fabrication process for single-mode ridge-waveguide GaAs/AlGaAs ring lasers with significantly lower threshold currents than previously reported for similar devices. In this fabrication process, the ridge waveguide structure is patterned using a metallic etch mask, which survives ensuing fabrication steps to form a continuous metallic cover over the entire resonator structure. This metallic cover improves the uniformity of electrical contact between the resonator structure and the metallic biasing layer deposited at the conclusion of the fabrication process. This leads to optimum electrical pumping of the fabricated devices. This fabrication process also allows for the passivation of the ridge-waveguide device sidewalls and separation of the metallic biasing layer from the optical mode.

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  1. T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, and J. S. Roberts, “CW operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(25), 2095–2097 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, and G. A. Vawter, “CW room temperature operation of y-junction semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28(4), 374–375 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Hohimer and G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring laser with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2457–2459 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Oku, M. Okayasu, and M. Ikeda, “Low-threshold operation of square-shaped semiconductor ring lasers (orbiter lasers),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(7), 588–590 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Han, D. V. Forbes, and J. J. Coleman, “InGaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs strained-layer quantum-well heterostructure square ring lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1994–1997 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Ji, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1469–1471 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO(2) waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1888–1890 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. E. Little, J.-P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 4–6 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1500–1507 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, B. Vogele, and C. R. Stanley, “Efficient semiconductor ring lasers made by a simple self aligned fabrication process,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 757–761 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Haverlag, D. Vender, and G. S. Oehrlein, “Ellipsometric study of silicon surface damage in electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching using CF4 and SF6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(24), 2875–2877 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1515–1530 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2005

H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1515–1530 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. E. Little, J.-P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1469–1471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, B. Vogele, and C. R. Stanley, “Efficient semiconductor ring lasers made by a simple self aligned fabrication process,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 757–761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Han, D. V. Forbes, and J. J. Coleman, “InGaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs strained-layer quantum-well heterostructure square ring lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1994–1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1500–1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. P. Hohimer and G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring laser with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2457–2459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, and G. A. Vawter, “CW room temperature operation of y-junction semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28(4), 374–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Haverlag, D. Vender, and G. S. Oehrlein, “Ellipsometric study of silicon surface damage in electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching using CF4 and SF6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(24), 2875–2877 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, and M. Ikeda, “Low-threshold operation of square-shaped semiconductor ring lasers (orbiter lasers),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(7), 588–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, and J. S. Roberts, “CW operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(25), 2095–2097 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ballantyne, J. M.

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1469–1471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

Borselli, M.

Braun, A. M.

G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Chao, C. P.

C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

Coleman, J. J.

H. Han, D. V. Forbes, and J. J. Coleman, “InGaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs strained-layer quantum-well heterostructure square ring lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1994–1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. C.

G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Craft, D. C.

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, and G. A. Vawter, “CW room temperature operation of y-junction semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28(4), 374–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1500–1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, B. Vogele, and C. R. Stanley, “Efficient semiconductor ring lasers made by a simple self aligned fabrication process,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 757–761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, D. V.

H. Han, D. V. Forbes, and J. J. Coleman, “InGaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs strained-layer quantum-well heterostructure square ring lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1994–1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Griffel, G.

G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, and G. A. Vawter, “CW room temperature operation of y-junction semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28(4), 374–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

H. Han, D. V. Forbes, and J. J. Coleman, “InGaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs strained-layer quantum-well heterostructure square ring lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1994–1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanberg, J.

H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haverlag, M.

M. Haverlag, D. Vender, and G. S. Oehrlein, “Ellipsometric study of silicon surface damage in electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching using CF4 and SF6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(24), 2875–2877 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hohimer, J. P.

J. P. Hohimer and G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring laser with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2457–2459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer, D. C. Craft, G. R. Hadley, and G. A. Vawter, “CW room temperature operation of y-junction semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28(4), 374–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. Y.

C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, and M. Ikeda, “Low-threshold operation of square-shaped semiconductor ring lasers (orbiter lasers),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(7), 588–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1469–1471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

Kimerling, L. C.

King, M.

G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1500–1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, B. Vogele, and C. R. Stanley, “Efficient semiconductor ring lasers made by a simple self aligned fabrication process,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 757–761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, and J. S. Roberts, “CW operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(25), 2095–2097 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

Law, K.-K.

C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1500–1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, B. Vogele, and C. R. Stanley, “Efficient semiconductor ring lasers made by a simple self aligned fabrication process,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 757–761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, and J. S. Roberts, “CW operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(25), 2095–2097 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leary, M. H.

C. Ji, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Long-wavelength triangular ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1469–1471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lim, D. R.

Little, B. E.

Menna, R. J.

G. Griffel, J. H. Abeles, R. J. Menna, A. M. Braun, J. C. Connolly, and M. King, “Low threshold InGaAsP ring lasers fabricated using bi-level dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 146–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J. L.

C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miglierina, R.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oehrlein, G. S.

M. Haverlag, D. Vender, and G. S. Oehrlein, “Ellipsometric study of silicon surface damage in electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching using CF4 and SF6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(24), 2875–2877 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okayasu, M.

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, and M. Ikeda, “Low-threshold operation of square-shaped semiconductor ring lasers (orbiter lasers),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(7), 588–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oku, S.

S. Oku, M. Okayasu, and M. Ikeda, “Low-threshold operation of square-shaped semiconductor ring lasers (orbiter lasers),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(7), 588–590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Pennings, E. C. M.

R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

T. F. Krauss, P. J. R. Laybourn, and J. S. Roberts, “CW operation of semiconductor ring lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(25), 2095–2097 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Roijen, R.

R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V. A.

H. V. Demir, J.-F. Zheng, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. Hanberg, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning planarization and passivation for integration applications in III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 18(1), 182–189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scir`e, A.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scirè, A.

Shin, J.

Sorel, M.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scir`e, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Scirè, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, “Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1992–1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, B. Vogele, and C. R. Stanley, “Efficient semiconductor ring lasers made by a simple self aligned fabrication process,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 757–761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, J. M. M.

R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Dongen, T.

R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Stalen, M. J. N.

R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
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J. P. Hohimer and G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring laser with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2457–2459 (1993).
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Vender, D.

M. Haverlag, D. Vender, and G. S. Oehrlein, “Ellipsometric study of silicon surface damage in electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching using CF4 and SF6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(24), 2875–2877 (1992).
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Verbeek, B. H.

R. Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multi-mode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vogele, B.

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[CrossRef]

Young, B.

C. P. Chao, S. Y. Hu, K.-K. Law, B. Young, J. L. Merz, and A. C. Gossard, “Low-threshold InGaAWGaAs strained layer single quantum well lasers with simple ridge waveguide structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(11), 7892–7894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hohimer and G. A. Vawter, “Unidirectional semiconductor ring laser with racetrack cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2457–2459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The proposed fabrication process for realization of Semiconductor ring lasers

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A device after Cyclotene planarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Planarized device with surviving metal etch mask layer on top. More than 200nm of the original 300nm Au layer remains intact after the conclusion of the planarizer etch-back process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical image of fabricated SRL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical power output with respect to pump current. A threshold current around 62mA can be observed

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between forward resistance as a function of pump current for devices with polymer and metal masks.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SRL optical spectrum at 65mA pump current. A single mode output is apparent around 873.35 nm.

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