Abstract

We demonstrate a highly-efficient, large-area (1x1 mm2) GaN slab light-emitting diode using a vertically directional emitter produced from constructive interference. The vertical radiation can be coupled effectively into leaky modes from the beginning and thus a high-extraction efficiency can be expected with reduced material absorption. The far-field measurements show that the desired vertical emission profiles are obtained by varying the thickness of the dielectric layer between the emitter and bottom silver mirror. With the combination of a light extractor of a randomly textured surface, the output power was increased ~1.4 fold compared to a non-patterned device at a standard current of 350 mA without electrical degradation.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-W. Jeon, T.-Y. Seong, H. Kim, and K.-K. Kim, “TiN/Al Ohmic contacts to N-face n-type GaN for high-performance vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 042102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C.-F. Lai, J.-Y. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, H.-H. Yen, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chao, H.-T. Hsueh, and W.-Y. Yeh, “Far-field of GaN film-transferred green light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8795–8804 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Chen and A. V. Nurmikko, “Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3663 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (10)

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Jeon, T.-Y. Seong, H. Kim, and K.-K. Kim, “TiN/Al Ohmic contacts to N-face n-type GaN for high-performance vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 042102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Lai, J.-Y. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, H.-H. Yen, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chao, H.-T. Hsueh, and W.-Y. Yeh, “Far-field of GaN film-transferred green light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8795–8804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Chen and A. V. Nurmikko, “Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, F.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bae, D. K.

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bochkareva, N. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-H.

Chen, L.

L. Chen and A. V. Nurmikko, “Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-L.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-M.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J.-Y.

Cho, H. K.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.-W.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. M.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ee, H.-S.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, A. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.-S.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Hsueh, H.-T.

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.-W.

J.-W. Jeon, T.-Y. Seong, H. Kim, and K.-K. Kim, “TiN/Al Ohmic contacts to N-face n-type GaN for high-performance vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 042102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, T.

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
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S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B.-C.

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A. Y.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J.-W. Jeon, T.-Y. Seong, H. Kim, and K.-K. Kim, “TiN/Al Ohmic contacts to N-face n-type GaN for high-performance vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 042102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-K.

J.-W. Jeon, T.-Y. Seong, H. Kim, and K.-K. Kim, “TiN/Al Ohmic contacts to N-face n-type GaN for high-performance vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 042102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, H.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

Lai, C. F.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C.-F.

Lavrinovich, D. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-E.

Lee, H. H.

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-J.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. K.

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-N.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-C.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misra, M. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

L. Chen and A. V. Nurmikko, “Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Faolain, L.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-G.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Yu. T.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumbolz, C.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T.-Y.

J.-W. Jeon, T.-Y. Seong, H. Kim, and K.-K. Kim, “TiN/Al Ohmic contacts to N-face n-type GaN for high-performance vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 042102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.-J.

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Yu. G.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. D.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S. A.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarkhin, D. V.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uang, K.-M.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-J.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-Y.

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, R.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W.-Y.

Yen, H. H.

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H.-H.

Yoon, S.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Zull, H.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii, S. Lee, J.-S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, S.-H. Lee, T. Kato, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Leakage current improvement of nitride-based light emitting diodes using CrN buffer layer and its vertical type application by chemical lift-off process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Jeon, T.-Y. Seong, H. Kim, and K.-K. Kim, “TiN/Al Ohmic contacts to N-face n-type GaN for high-performance vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 042102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L. O'Faolain, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen and A. V. Nurmikko, “Fabrication and performance of efficient blue light emitting III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Strong high order diffraction of guided modes in micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with hexagonal photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1517–1523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. K. Cho, S.-K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B.-C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y.-H. Lee, “Laser liftoff GaN thin-film photonic crystal GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2096–2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Jeong, K. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, and J. K. Lee, “Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using highly reflective ITO-Ag-Pt reflectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1932–1934 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, H. H. Yen, C. F. Lai, H. W. Huang, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced vertical extraction efficiency from a thin-film InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode using a 2-D photonic crystal and an omnidirectional reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K.-M. Uang, S.-J. Wang, T.-M. Chen, W.-C. Lee, S.-L. Chen, Y.-Y. Wang, and H. Kuan, “Enhanced performance of vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with a current-blocking layer and electroplated nickel substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 102101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs -designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The vertical GaN slab LED with a randomly textured surface and a bottom Ag mirror. (a) Schematic diagram of the LED structure. The distance between the MQWs and Ag mirror is denoted by d. (b) SEM image of a cross-section of the fabricated LED structure with a scale bar of 5 μm (left). A magnified SEM image of the randomly textured top surface with a scale car of 5 μm (top) and a TEM image of the heterostructure of the n-GaN/three pairs of MQWs/p-GaN/ITO/Ag with a scale bar of 20 nm (bottom). (c) The calculated field profiles (log E2) using a 3D FDTD simulation. Dipole sources with identical oscillation intensities in all three directions are located in the GaN slab and separated from the bottom Ag mirror by d = 2.6∙(λ/4n) (top) and d = 1.6∙(λ/4n) (bottom). The blue dotted lines indicate the critical angle (37°) of the total internal reflection between GaN and the Si-gel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The far-field measurement of the emission profiles. (a) Schematic diagram of the far-field measurement setup. The light intensity was recorded in the θ- and ϕ-directions by rotating both sample and photodetector. (b) The output intensities measured in the non-patterned LEDs with different ITO thicknesses of 20 nm, 40 nm and 60 nm are plotted as a function of θ (top). The thickness of p-GaN was 97 nm. In the bottom, the 2D angular distributions measured in both θ- and ϕ-directions are shown for the ITO thicknesses of 20 nm and 60 nm. The narrow and vertical emission profile was observed at an ITO thickness of 20 nm due to constructive interference. (c) The relative enhancement was calculated using the 3D FDTD simulation as a function of the distance between the dipole source and Ag, d. A non-patterned LED structure was introduced with an ambient medium, Si-gel, with a refractive index of 1.4. The relative enhancement is defined by the extraction efficiency normalized by the calculated efficiency in the case that the dipole source with the isotropic emission profile located infinitely far from the Ag mirror. In addition, the output powers measured in the non-patterned devices with the ITO thicknesses of 20 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm and 80 nm are introduced for comparison (black dots). These output powers were normalized by the average power showing no interference effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of the optical and electrical properties of the LEDs with randomly textured surfaces. (a) The output powers were measured at a standard current of 350 mA with varying ITO thickness from 20 nm to 80 nm. The two LEDs with p-GaN thicknesses of 97 nm (black line) and 80 nm (red line) were used. The graph is plotted as a function of the total distance between the MWQs and Ag mirror, d, that includes the p-GaN and ITO thicknesses. (b) CCD images at 350 mA of the LEDs with dITO = 20 nm (left) and dITO = 60 nm (right). In both images, identical neutral density filters were used to avoid intensity saturation. (c) Current-voltage characteristics measured in the LEDs with dITO = 20 nm (black line) and dITO = 60 nm (blue line). (d) The output power-current characteristics measured in the LEDs with and without the random patterns on the top surface at dITO = 20 nm (red and black lines, respectively). The reference (green line) is the non-patterned LED with dITO = 40 nm. In (b), (c), and (d), the p-GaN thickness was 97 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The 3D FDTD simulation of the LEDs with and without a randomly textured surface. (a) Schematic diagram of the patterned LED structure used in the simulation. The random patterns were introduced based on the SEM image in Fig. 1(b). A perfect metal was used as the bottom mirror. (b) The extraction efficiencies were calculated as a function of the extinction coefficient, k, of the absorptive layers introduced in the GaN slab. The red line and dot show the efficiencies in the patterned LED under constructive and destructive interference conditions, respectively. On the other hand, the black line and dot show the efficiencies in the non-patterned LED under constructive and destructive interference conditions, respectively. The green line is the efficiency of the reference.

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