Abstract

We show, via simulations, that an optical fiber taper waveguide can be an efficient tool for photoluminescence and resonant, extinction spectroscopy of single emitters, such as molecules or colloidal quantum dots, deposited on the surface of a thin dielectric membrane. Placed over a high refractive index membrane, a tapered fiber waveguide induces the formation of hybrid mode waves, akin to dielectric slotted waveguide modes, that provide strong field confinement in the low index gap region. The availability of such gap-confined waves yields potentially high spontaneous emission enhancement factors (≈ 20), fluorescence collection efficiencies (≈ 23 %), and transmission extinction (≈ 20 %) levels. A factor of two improvement in fluorescence and extinction levels is predicted if the membrane is instead replaced with a suspended channel waveguide. Two configurations, for operation in the visible (≈ 600 nm) and near-infrared (≈ 1300 nm) spectral ranges are evaluated, presenting similar performances.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. C. Jun, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, "Broadband enhancement of light emission insilicon slot waveguides," Opt. Express 17, 7479-7490 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-7479
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
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  14. R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. Klimov, "Tunable Near-Infrared Optical Gain and Amplified Spontaneous Emission Using PbSe Nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, "Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 μ in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73, 075101 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. V. S. C. M. Rao and S. Hughes, "Single quantum-dot Purcell factor and beta factor in a photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205437 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, "Spectroscopy of 1.55 m PbS Quantum Dots on Si Photonic Crystal Cavities with a Fiber Taper Waveguide," arXiv:0912.1365v1 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, "Broadband enhancement of light emission insilicon slot waveguides," Opt. Express 17, 7479-7490 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-7479
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Davanc¸o and K. Srinivasan, "Efficient spectroscopy of single embedded emitters using optical fiber taper waveguides," Opt. Express 17, 10542-10563 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Davanc¸o and K. Srinivasan, "Fiber-coupled semiconductor waveguides as an efficient optical interface to a single quantum dipole," Opt. Lett. 34, 2542-2544 (2009), http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-16-2542
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M.W. McCutcheon and M. Loncar, "Design of a silicon nitride photonic crystal nanocavity with a Quality factor of one million for coupling to a diamond nanocrystal," Opt. Express 16, 19136-19145 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-23-19136
[CrossRef]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. S. C. M. Rao and S. Hughes, "Single quantum-dot Purcell factor and beta factor in a photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q4. G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Very Large Spontaneous-Emission beta Factors in Photonic-Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, "Single quantum dot spectroscopy using a fiber taper waveguide near-field optic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, "Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 μ in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. E. Moerner, "Single-photon sources based on single molecules in solids," N. J. Phys. 6, 88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk, "Atoms, dipole waves, and strongly focused light beams," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. Klimov, "Tunable Near-Infrared Optical Gain and Amplified Spontaneous Emission Using PbSe Nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Wise, "Lead salt quantum dots: The limit of strong quantum confinement," Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773-780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. S. Harms, T. Irngartinger, D. Reiss, A. Renn, and U. P. Wild, "Fluorescence lifetimes of terrylene in solid matrices," Chem. Phys. Lett. 313, 533-538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

W. Moerner, "Examining nanoenvironments in solids on the scale of a single, isolated inpurity molecule," Science 265, 46-53 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-P. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: and overview," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 963-983 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Zumbusch, L. Fleury, R. Brown, J. Bernard, and M. Orrit, "Probing individual two-level systems in a polymer by correlation of single molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3584-3587 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, "Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716-2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agio, M.

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Atwater, H. A.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J.

A. Zumbusch, L. Fleury, R. Brown, J. Bernard, and M. Orrit, "Probing individual two-level systems in a polymer by correlation of single molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3584-3587 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, "Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716-2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bottger, T.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, "Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 μ in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

Brongersma, M. L.

Brown, R.

A. Zumbusch, L. Fleury, R. Brown, J. Bernard, and M. Orrit, "Probing individual two-level systems in a polymer by correlation of single molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3584-3587 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bushev, P.

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cone, R. L.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, "Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 μ in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davanc¸o, M.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, L.

A. Zumbusch, L. Fleury, R. Brown, J. Bernard, and M. Orrit, "Probing individual two-level systems in a polymer by correlation of single molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3584-3587 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, I.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotzinger, S.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harms, G. S.

G. S. Harms, T. Irngartinger, D. Reiss, A. Renn, and U. P. Wild, "Fluorescence lifetimes of terrylene in solid matrices," Chem. Phys. Lett. 313, 533-538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heine, J. R.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hettich, C.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-P.

Hughes, S.

V. S. C. M. Rao and S. Hughes, "Single quantum-dot Purcell factor and beta factor in a photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

Q4. G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Very Large Spontaneous-Emission beta Factors in Photonic-Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Irngartinger, T.

G. S. Harms, T. Irngartinger, D. Reiss, A. Renn, and U. P. Wild, "Fluorescence lifetimes of terrylene in solid matrices," Chem. Phys. Lett. 313, 533-538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, K. F.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

Klimov, V.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. Klimov, "Tunable Near-Infrared Optical Gain and Amplified Spontaneous Emission Using PbSe Nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, "Single quantum dot spectroscopy using a fiber taper waveguide near-field optic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Q4. G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Very Large Spontaneous-Emission beta Factors in Photonic-Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecamp, G.

Q4. G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Very Large Spontaneous-Emission beta Factors in Photonic-Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lettow, R.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCutcheon, M.W.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W.

W. Moerner, "Examining nanoenvironments in solids on the scale of a single, isolated inpurity molecule," Science 265, 46-53 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, "Single-photon sources based on single molecules in solids," N. J. Phys. 6, 88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

A. Zumbusch, L. Fleury, R. Brown, J. Bernard, and M. Orrit, "Probing individual two-level systems in a polymer by correlation of single molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3584-3587 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, "Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716-2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, "Single quantum dot spectroscopy using a fiber taper waveguide near-field optic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petruska, M. A.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. Klimov, "Tunable Near-Infrared Optical Gain and Amplified Spontaneous Emission Using PbSe Nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfab, R.

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfab, R. J.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pototschnig, M.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, V. S. C. M.

V. S. C. M. Rao and S. Hughes, "Single quantum-dot Purcell factor and beta factor in a photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reiss, D.

G. S. Harms, T. Irngartinger, D. Reiss, A. Renn, and U. P. Wild, "Fluorescence lifetimes of terrylene in solid matrices," Chem. Phys. Lett. 313, 533-538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Renn, A.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Harms, T. Irngartinger, D. Reiss, A. Renn, and U. P. Wild, "Fluorescence lifetimes of terrylene in solid matrices," Chem. Phys. Lett. 313, 533-538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. Klimov, "Tunable Near-Infrared Optical Gain and Amplified Spontaneous Emission Using PbSe Nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

Stintz, A.

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, "Single quantum dot spectroscopy using a fiber taper waveguide near-field optic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, "Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 μ in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sundar, V. C.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, C. W.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, "Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 μ in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Enk, S. J.

S. J. van Enk, "Atoms, dipole waves, and strongly focused light beams," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wild, U. P.

G. S. Harms, T. Irngartinger, D. Reiss, A. Renn, and U. P. Wild, "Fluorescence lifetimes of terrylene in solid matrices," Chem. Phys. Lett. 313, 533-538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F.

F. Wise, "Lead salt quantum dots: The limit of strong quantum confinement," Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773-780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigge, G.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, J.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, L. Fleury, R. Brown, J. Bernard, and M. Orrit, "Probing individual two-level systems in a polymer by correlation of single molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3584-3587 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumofen, G.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res.

F. Wise, "Lead salt quantum dots: The limit of strong quantum confinement," Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773-780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, "Full Color Emission from II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Polymer Composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, "Single quantum dot spectroscopy using a fiber taper waveguide near-field optic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. S. Harms, T. Irngartinger, D. Reiss, A. Renn, and U. P. Wild, "Fluorescence lifetimes of terrylene in solid matrices," Chem. Phys. Lett. 313, 533-538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. B

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. Klimov, "Tunable Near-Infrared Optical Gain and Amplified Spontaneous Emission Using PbSe Nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

W. E. Moerner, "Single-photon sources based on single molecules in solids," N. J. Phys. 6, 88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence," Nat. Phys. 4, 60-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629-632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gotzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, "A singlemolecule optical transistor," Nature 460, 76-80 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

S. J. van Enk, "Atoms, dipole waves, and strongly focused light beams," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

V. S. C. M. Rao and S. Hughes, "Single quantum-dot Purcell factor and beta factor in a photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys.

T. Bottger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, "Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 μ in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 73, 075101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Gerhardt, G. Wrigge, P. Bushev, G. Zumofen, M. Agio, R. Pfab, and V. Sandoghdar, "Strong Extinction of a Laser Beam by a Single Molecule," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, L. Fleury, R. Brown, J. Bernard, and M. Orrit, "Probing individual two-level systems in a polymer by correlation of single molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3584-3587 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, "Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716-2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q4. G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Very Large Spontaneous-Emission beta Factors in Photonic-Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

W. Moerner, "Examining nanoenvironments in solids on the scale of a single, isolated inpurity molecule," Science 265, 46-53 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, "Spectroscopy of 1.55 m PbS Quantum Dots on Si Photonic Crystal Cavities with a Fiber Taper Waveguide," arXiv:0912.1365v1 (2009).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, New York, NY, 1983).

Following Ref. [19], the fiber mode fraction, Eq. (2), would be given by the expression fm = _ f |m__m| f _ (_ f | f __m|m_)-1, where _ f |m_ =∬ ∫ (ef ×h*m +hf×e* mm_ · ˆzdS/4. Considering no reflections at the interface between the isolated fiber and the contact region, (i.e., the field just after the interface is identical to the incident, foward propagating, field), Eq. (2) gives the same result.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Tapered fiber waveguide-based probing configuration for emitters deposited on the surface of a dielectric membrane. An individual emitter, embedded in a host thin film, is depicted under the fiber. (b) Cross-section of structure in (a). (c) Schematic of single emitter excitation and PL collection via the tapered fiber probe. A non-resonant pump signal is injected into the input fiber and converted into a guided supermode of the composite waveguide, illuminating the slab-embedded dipole. The dipole radiates into guided and radiative supermodes, with rates Γ m and Γ rad respectively. Power is transferred with efficiency fm from the supermode to the fiber mode and vice-versa. The interaction length L c is the length in which fiber and slab are in close proximity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)Maximum total spontaneous emission rate enhacement Γ/Γhom, where Γhom is the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a homogeneous dielectric medium of refractive index n host. (b) PL collection efficiencies η PL, including both fiber ends, for y-polarized dipoles in the SiN (λ = 600 nm) and Si(λ = 1300 nm) membrane configurations, as functions of the host layer refractive index, n host. Results calculated with finite difference time domain simulations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplitude of the major electric field component (Ey ) of laterally bound gap modes (normalized to the maximum electric field amplitude, ∣Emax) for the (a), (b) Si slab configuration (λ = 1300 nm) with (a) n host = 1-0 and (b) n host = 1.7; (c), (d) SiN configuration (λ = 600 nm) with (c) n host = 1.0 and (d) n host = 1.7. In all cases, t host = 20 nm. Line plots show ∣Ey ∣/∣Emax on the x = 0 plane (dotted line in the contour plots).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Supermode contributions to the total PL collection efficiency (η PL,m), modal spontaneous emission coupling factors (γm ), fiber mode fractions fm and effective supermode lengths L eff,δ=0.1 for the (a)-(d) Si slab, λ = 1300 nm and (e)-(h) SiN, λ = 600nm systems. Circles: main supermode; dots: secondary supermodes

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Normalized, off- and on-resonance transmission (F 0 and F) and contrast ∆T = (F - F 0)/F 0 as functions of separation from a single, y-oriented dipole at z 0. The dipole is embedded in a host material with n host = 1.7 on top of a 130 nm thick SiN membrane, and emits at λ = 600 nm. (b) Achievable transmission contrast ∆T as a function of the host film index n host. Squares: results obtained assuming dipole excitation with the main supermode only; circles: assuming multimode excitation (see text for details).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η PL = 2 P z P Tot . f fiber .
f m = Re { S ( e f × h m * ) · z ̂ dS S ( e m × h f * ) · z ̂ dS } Re { S ( e f × h f * ) · z ̂ dS } Re { S ( e m × h m * ) · z ̂ dS } .
E ( + ) ( z , t ) = i 2 π m h ̄ ω 4 π S m e m e 1 ( ωt β m z ) ×
× [ a ̂ in m ( t n m z / c ) + Γ m * σ ( t n m z / c ) ] .
F ̂ = { S dS ( E ( ) × h f ) · z ̂ S dS ( e f * × H ( + ) ) · z ̂ +
S dS ( H ( ) × e f ) · z ̂ S dS ( h f * × E ( + ) ) · z ̂ } S f 1 ,
F = h ̄ ω Re { m , m f m f m e i ( β m β m ) ( z z 0 ) ×
× [ B m B m * + Γ m Γ m * ζ Γ 2 ( B m * Γ m * ξ + B m Γ m ξ * ) ( Γ 2 ) 2 2 ζ ] } ,

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