Abstract

We present a wavelength-tunable, compact, high speed and low power silicon microring modulator. With a ring radius of 5 µm, we demonstrate a modulator with a high speed of 12.5 Gbps and a driving voltage of 3 V to achieve ~6 dB extinction ratio in high speed measurement. More importantly, tunability of the resonant wavelength is accomplished by means of a microheater on top of the ring, with an efficiency of 2.4 mW/nm (2.4 mW is needed to tune the resonant wavelength by 1 nm). This device aims to solve the narrow bandwidth problem of silicon microcavity modulators and increase the data bandwidth in optical interconnect systems.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(3), 58–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling and ., “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

Asghari, M.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

Block, B.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Chang, P.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Chen, L.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dokania, R. K.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fattal, D.

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fidaner, O.

Gardes, F. Y.

Green, W. M.

Guha, B.

Harris, J. S.

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iso, M.

Izhaky, N.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(3), 58–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jongthammanurak, S.

Kamins, T. I.

Kern, A.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling and ., “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Kuo, Y. H.

Kyotoku, B. B. C.

Lee, B. G.

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, J.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mohammed, E.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Palermo, S.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(3), 58–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poitras, C. B.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G.

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(3), 58–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Reshotko, M.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Roth, J. E.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchis, P.

Schaevitz, R. K.

Schmidt, B.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wada, K.

Wang, H.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, I.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Zhao, D.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits (1)

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, “Silicon photonics,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(3), 58–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. C. Kimerling and ., “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Other (3)

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High speed carrier injection 18 Gb/s silicon micro-ring electro-optic modulator,” in Proceedings of LEOS2007 (IEEE 2007), pp. 537–538.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE 2008), pp. 4 - 6.

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, G. Nielson, D. Luck, and R. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” In Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics / Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2009), paper CPDB10.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-section of the designed modulator with a local heater. (b) Top-view SEM image of the fully fabricated microring modulator. The ring radius is 5 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectra of the ring resonator with different heating power. (b) Resonant wavelength versus heating power and its linear fitting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of the ring at different bias voltages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 12.5 Gbps modulation of the device without any heating power at a wavelength of 1550.70 nm. (b) 12.5 Gbps modulation of the device with 18 mW heating power at a wavelength of 1558.00 nm. The temperature increase is expected to be ~93 °C.

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