Abstract

We theoretically demonstrate a polarization-independent nanopatterned ultra-thin metallic structure supporting short-range surface plasmon polariton (SRSPP) modes to improve the performance of organic solar cells. The physical mechanism and the mode distribution of the SRSPP excited in the cell device were analyzed, and reveal that the SRSPP-assisted broadband absorption enhancement peak could be tuned by tailoring the parameters of the nanopatterned metallic structure. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain calculations show that this plasmonic structure can enhance the optical absorption of polymer-based photovoltaics by 39% to 112%, depending on the nature of the active layer (corresponding to an enhancement in short-circuit current density by 47% to 130%). These results are promising for the design of organic photovoltaics with enhanced performance.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (4)

S. Sista, M.-H. Park, Z. Hong, Y. Wu, J. Hou, W. L. Kwan, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Highly efficient tandem polymer photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(3), 380–383 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Chen, J. Hou, Z. Hong, G. Yang, S. Sista, L.-M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Thin Active Layers Based on Alternating Polyfluorene Copolymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(42), 4238–4242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Braun, B. Gompf, G. Kobiela, and M. Dressel, “How holes can obscure the view: suppressed transmission through an ultrathin metal film by a subwavelength hole array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(20), 203901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Bai, Q. Gan, F. Bartoli, J. Zhang, L. Cai, Y. Huang, and G. Song, “Design of plasmonic back structures for efficiency enhancement of thin-film amorphous Si solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3725–3727 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, I. R. Hooper, and J. R. Sambles, “Strongly coupled surface plasmons on thin shallow metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(16), 161405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Shaw, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Exciton Diffusion Measurements in Poly(3-hexylthiophene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3516–3520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. Debettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design Rules for Donors in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells - Towards 10% Energy-Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Derkacs, H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

D. E. Markov, C. Tanase, P. W. M. Blom, and J. Wildeman, “Simultaneous enhancement of charge transport and exciton diffusion in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells: an overview,” J. Mater. Res. 19(7), 1924–1945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Bätzner, F.-J. Haug, M. Kälin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “Recent developments in photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 3–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature 425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: Solar cells for 2020 and beyond,” Physica E 14(1-2), 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 72(1-4), 291–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical Constants of Conjugated Polymer/Fullerene Based Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Luth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 61(1), 97–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, K. Ramanathan, J. Hiltner, A. Swartzlander, F. Hasoon, and R. Noufi, “Progress toward 20% efficiency in Cu(In,Ca)Se-2 polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 7(4), 311–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Photovoltaic Cells: Enhanced Efficiencies via a Network of Internal Donor-Acceptor Heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, “Long-range surface modes supported by thin film,” Phys. Rev. B 44(11), 5855–5872 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abou-Ras, D.

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Bätzner, F.-J. Haug, M. Kälin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, T. Ameri, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, C. J. Brabec, K. Hingerl, and A. J. Heeger, “Design of efficient organic tandem cells: On the interplay between molecular absorption and layer sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(12), 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, W.

Bailly, S.

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. Debettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F.

Bätzner, D. L.

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Bätzner, F.-J. Haug, M. Kälin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bauhuis, G. J.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beaupre, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blom, P. W. M.

D. E. Markov, C. Tanase, P. W. M. Blom, and J. Wildeman, “Simultaneous enhancement of charge transport and exciton diffusion in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

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R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
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P. E. Shaw, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Exciton Diffusion Measurements in Poly(3-hexylthiophene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3516–3520 (2008).
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M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design Rules for Donors in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells - Towards 10% Energy-Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
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G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
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P. E. Shaw, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Exciton Diffusion Measurements in Poly(3-hexylthiophene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3516–3520 (2008).
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M.-H. Chen, J. Hou, Z. Hong, G. Yang, S. Sista, L.-M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Thin Active Layers Based on Alternating Polyfluorene Copolymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(42), 4238–4242 (2009).
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V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
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A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Bätzner, F.-J. Haug, M. Kälin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
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A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Bätzner, F.-J. Haug, M. Kälin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
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S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
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K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
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P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature 425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
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A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
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W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
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M. Westphalen, U. Kreibig, J. Rostalski, H. Luth, and D. Meissner, “Metal cluster enhanced organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 61(1), 97–105 (2000).
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R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. E. Markov, C. Tanase, P. W. M. Blom, and J. Wildeman, “Simultaneous enhancement of charge transport and exciton diffusion in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Sista, M.-H. Park, Z. Hong, Y. Wu, J. Hou, W. L. Kwan, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Highly efficient tandem polymer photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(3), 380–383 (2010).
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G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Photovoltaic Cells: Enhanced Efficiencies via a Network of Internal Donor-Acceptor Heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, “Long-range surface modes supported by thin film,” Phys. Rev. B 44(11), 5855–5872 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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M.-H. Chen, J. Hou, Z. Hong, G. Yang, S. Sista, L.-M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Thin Active Layers Based on Alternating Polyfluorene Copolymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(42), 4238–4242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Sista, M.-H. Park, Z. Hong, Y. Wu, J. Hou, W. L. Kwan, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Highly efficient tandem polymer photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(3), 380–383 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Chen, J. Hou, Z. Hong, G. Yang, S. Sista, L.-M. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Thin Active Layers Based on Alternating Polyfluorene Copolymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(42), 4238–4242 (2009).
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G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
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G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
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G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
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V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 72(1-4), 291–298 (2002).
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C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zozoulenko, I. V.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganäs, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 113514 (2007).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the proposed plasmonic organic solar cell.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the simulated and measured absorbance [see the red dots, reproduced from Fig. 2(b) in Ref. [9]. of a 150nm thick P3HT:PC70BM layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculations on the device with the nanopatterned metallic structure of diameter D = 150nm, and period P = 300nm. (a) Solid line - the absorption spectrum with a nanopatterned metallic structure; dotted line - the absorption spectrum with a flat metallic structure; and dashed line - the absorption enhancement spectrum. (b) and (c) are time averaged magnetic intensity (|Hy|2) distributions at the SPP resonance wavelength. (b) is the intensity distribution in the x-y plane, and (c) is the intensity distribution in x-z plane. The spatial mode profile is plotted in the right panel of (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) are electric field distributions at the SRSPP resonance wavelength at 725nm. (a) Time-averaged (color-scale) and instantaneous (arrows) electric field strengths and surface charge distribution in x-z plane, and (b) Instantaneous EZ vector distribution at the top and bottom surfaces of the Ag nanostructure. (c) Map of the absorption enhancement versus wavelength and metallic nanostructure thickness. The solid arrow corresponds to the resonance wavelength of the single-interface SPP Bloch mode. The dashed line corresponds to the analytical solutions of the SRSPP Bloch modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The photon flux density of the solar spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maps of the absorption enhancement versus wavelength and period for two organic solar cells, i.e. a P3HT:PC70BM cell (a), and a PCPDTBT:PCBM cell (b). The dashed lines correspond to the analytical solutions of the SRSPP Bloch modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The short-circuit current density (JSC) and its corresponding enhancement versus period of the nanopatterned metallic structure for the P3HT:PC70BM cell. The inset shows the absorbed photons spectra of the device with a nanopatterned metallic structure (solid line, P = 260nm) and a flat metallic surface (dotted line). (b) JSC and its corresponding enhancement versus period of the nanopatterned structure for the PCPDTBT:PCBM cell. The inset shows the absorbed photons spectra of the device with nanopatterned metallic structure (solid line, P = 320nm) and flat metallic surface (dotted line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The relation between the JSC and the active layer thickness of the P3HT:PC70BM device. The red curve is the JSC of the device with nanostructured back reflector; the black curve is the JSC of the device with a 20nm flat back reflector. Inset: The relation between the JSC enhancement factor (the ratio of the JSC-nano and JSC-ref ) and the active layer thickness.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k i n p l a n e = G i j = i G x + j G y .
| k S P P | = ω c ε d ε m ε d + ε m ,
tanh ( S 2 t ) ( ε d 1 ε d 2 S 2 2 + ε m 2 S 1 S 3 ) + [ ε m S 2 ( ε d 1 S 3 + ε d 2 S 1 ) ] = 0.

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