Abstract

Efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are presented in an inverted geometry employing ZnS/ Ag/ WO3 (ZAW) as a top anode and ITO/ Cs2CO3 as a bottom cathode. Upon identification of the light absorption that differs depending on the illumination direction, the degree of the absorption asymmetry is tuned by varying the ZAW structure to maximize the efficiency for one direction or to balance it for both directions. Power conversion efficiency close to that of conventional opaque OPV cells is demonstrated in semitransparent cells for the ITO side illumination by taking advantage of the internal reflection occurring at the organic/ZAW interface. Cells with efficiencies that are reduced but balanced for both illumination directions are also demonstrated.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (5)

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, ““Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the “Lighting Africa” initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A272–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A semi-transparent plastic solar cell fabricated by a lamination process,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, and C. J. Brabec, “Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2816–2819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aarø, D.

Alstrup, J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Azimi, H.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, N. S.

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, and C. J. Brabec, “Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2816–2819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulow, T.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Han, S. Lim, H. Kim, H. Cho, and S. Yoo, “Versatile Multilayer Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free and Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

Chu, C.-W.

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, W.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flugge, H.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forberich, K.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fromherz, T.

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fyenbo, J.

A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A272–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, ““Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the “Lighting Africa” initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gevorgyan, S. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

S. Han, S. Lim, H. Kim, H. Cho, and S. Yoo, “Versatile Multilayer Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free and Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

Hau, S. K.

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hauch, J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, and C. J. Brabec, “Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2816–2819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hingerl, K.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoeglinger, D.

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, J.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A semi-transparent plastic solar cell fabricated by a lamination process,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, M.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A272–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. Han, S. Lim, H. Kim, H. Cho, and S. Yoo, “Versatile Multilayer Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free and Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

Koeppe, R.

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, X.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, ““Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the “Lighting Africa” initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Medford, M. R. Lilliedal, M. Jørgensen, D. Aarø, H. Pakalski, J. Fyenbo, and F. C. Krebs, “Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A272–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. M.

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A semi-transparent plastic solar cell fabricated by a lamination process,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lian, J.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lilliedal, M. R.

Lim, S.

S. Han, S. Lim, H. Kim, H. Cho, and S. Yoo, “Versatile Multilayer Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free and Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

Liu, C.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyubovskaya, R. N.

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medford, A. J.

Meng, F.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T. D.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, ““Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the “Lighting Africa” initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Norrman, K.

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Malley, K.

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padinger, F.

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pakalski, H.

Pandey, A. K.

A. K. Pandey and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photophysics of solution-processed transparent solar cells under top and bottom illumination.” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

Pang, H.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, M. S.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, ““Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the “Lighting Africa” initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Razumov, V. F.

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedl, T.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

A. K. Pandey and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photophysics of solution-processed transparent solar cells under top and bottom illumination.” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

Sariciftci, N. S.

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schilinsky, P.

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, and C. J. Brabec, “Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2816–2819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seemann, A.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaheen, S. E.

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, C.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tromholt, T.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troshin, P. A.

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadstrøm, M.

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, ““Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the “Lighting Africa” initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waldauf, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, and C. J. Brabec, “Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2816–2819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, T.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A semi-transparent plastic solar cell fabricated by a lamination process,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yip, H.-L.

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Han, S. Lim, H. Kim, H. Cho, and S. Yoo, “Versatile Multilayer Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free and Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

Yu, L.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, C.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, H. Azimi, A. Seemann, K. Forberich, J. Hauch, M. Scharber, K. Hingerl, and C. J. Brabec, “Fabrication, optical modeling, and color characterization of semitransparent bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in an inverted structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1592–1598 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “A semi-transparent plastic solar cell fabricated by a lamination process,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. Tao, G. Xie, C. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Dong, F. Meng, X. Kong, L. Shen, S. Ruan, and W. Chen, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hau, H.-L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. M. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, “2.5% efficient organic plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 841–843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

ChemSusChem (1)

R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells with semitransparent metal back contacts for power window applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

F. C. Krebs, T. D. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, M. Wadstrøm, and M. S. Pedersen, ““Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the “Lighting Africa” initiative,” Energy Environ. Sci. 3(5), 512–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (2)

A. K. Pandey and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photophysics of solution-processed transparent solar cells under top and bottom illumination.” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

S. Han, S. Lim, H. Kim, H. Cho, and S. Yoo, “Versatile Multilayer Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free and Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (available online. doi: ).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, and C. J. Brabec, “Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2816–2819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(7), 686–714 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optics, 3rd Ed. pp.53–72 (Taylor & Francis, New York, 2001).

P. Nath, and C. Vogeli, “Translucent photovoltaic sheet material and panels.” US patent, No.5,176,758 (1993).

A. Ricaud, J. Schmitt, and J.-M. Siefert, “Semi-transparent solar module panel.” US Patent, No. D 353,129 (1994).

http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/WF/3MWindowFilms/Products/TechnicalLibrary/ (accessed on July, 2010).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic device geometry of the proposed semitransparent organic photovoltaic (ST-OPV) cells. (b) Equivalent multilayer thin-film structure under Smith’s method used for modeling/analysis of the proposed ST-OPV cells based on transfer matrix formalism. Definitions for R t and T t are given for the case of ITO-side illumination, for example. See Ref. 16 and references therein for further details on optical modeling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of P3HT:PCBM70 blend films used in this work. The blend film was treated as if it were a single layer in ellipsometric analysis. (b) Comparison of the transmittance of P3HT:PCBM70 films on a glass calculated with the (n,k) values in (a) with respect to the experimental values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated absorptance (A t) spectra of ST-OPVs under study for d ZnS of (a) 20nm and (b) 50nm. (c) A t vs. d ZnS at the wavelength (λ) of 500nm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated photocurrent density (J ph) for AM1.5G (1sun) illumination vs. the thickness of the ZnS layer (d ZnS) for each illumination direction. η QE of 80% assumed in Eq. (1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental J-V characteristics of ST-OPV cells under study with d ZnS of (a) 50nm and (b) 20nm. That of a control inverted OPV cell with the same device structure except for the opaque anode [ = WO3(13 nm)/ Al (70 nm)] is also shown for comparison (dashed line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental and simulated EQE spectra of ST-OPV cells under study with d ZnS of (a) 50nm and (b) 20nm. That of a control inverted OPV cell with the same device structure except for the opaque anode [ = WO3(13 nm)/ Al (70 nm)] is also shown for comparison (grey hexagon). Note: EQE spectra were measured for a batch different from those used in Fig. 5. This batch of cells had a J sc of 9.9 (Ref), 8.6 (50nm; ITO), 4.1 (50nm; ZAW), 7.4 (20nm; ITO), 5.4 (20nm; ZAW) mA/cm2, respectively, under the illumination from the solar simulator.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Calculated internal reflectance (R ZAW (int)) at the organic/ ZAW interface for ITO-side illumination. (b) Distribution of the squared magnitude of electric field (≡ |E(z)|2) within ST-OPV cells when d ZnS is 20 nm or 50 nm in case of ITO-side (top figure) or ZAW-side (bottom figure) illumination. Values are normalized to the squared field strength of the incident light (≡ |E 0|2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured total transmittance (T t) of the ST-OPV cells. Inset: the photographs of the fabricated devices. Top parts of the finger electrodes correspond to the active regions. Bottom parts have additional 70 nm-thick Al layers for stable electrical contact.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average performance of semitransparent inverted OPV cells*

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J ph = e η QE N AM1 .5G ( λ ) A active ( λ ; d ZnS ) d λ

Metrics