Abstract

We report on the fabrication and performance of polymer-based inverted solar cells utilizing amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the electron-collecting electrode. Amorphous IZO films of 200 nm thickness were deposited by room temperature sputtering in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The films possessed a high optical transmittance in the visible region (≥ 80%), a low resistivity (3.3 × 10−4 Ωcm), a low surface roughness (root mean square = 0.68 nm), and a low work function (4.46 ± 0.02 eV). Inverted solar cells with the structure a-IZO/P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3% estimated for AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2 illumination.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. B. Kippelen and J. L. Bredas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Brabec, “Organic photovoltaics: technology and market,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 273–292 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kuwabara, Y. Kawahara, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Characterization of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells with a ZnO Layer as the Electron Collection Electrode by ac Impedance Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2107–2110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. S. Park, K. H. Choi, and H. K. Kim, “Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Flexible IZO Electrode Grown on PET Substrate for Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(12), H426–H429 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Yaglioglu, Y. J. Huang, H. Y. Yeom, and D. C. Paine, “A study of amorphous and crystalline phases in In2O3-10wt.% ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 89–94 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. S. Park, H. K. Kim, S. W. Jeong, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3071–3074 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Gassenbauer and A. Klein, “Electronic surface properties of rf-magnetron sputtered In2O3: Sn,” Solid State Ion. 173(1-4), 141–145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. C. Pan, M. H. Shiao, C. Y. Su, and C. N. Hsiao, “Influence of sputtering parameter on the optical and electrical properties of zinc-doped indium oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(4), 1187–1191 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

2010 (3)

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Park, H. K. Kim, S. W. Jeong, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3071–3074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen and J. L. Bredas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwabara, Y. Kawahara, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Characterization of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells with a ZnO Layer as the Electron Collection Electrode by ac Impedance Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2107–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Park, K. H. Choi, and H. K. Kim, “Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Flexible IZO Electrode Grown on PET Substrate for Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(12), H426–H429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Yaglioglu, Y. J. Huang, H. Y. Yeom, and D. C. Paine, “A study of amorphous and crystalline phases in In2O3-10wt.% ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 89–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. C. Pan, M. H. Shiao, C. Y. Su, and C. N. Hsiao, “Influence of sputtering parameter on the optical and electrical properties of zinc-doped indium oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(4), 1187–1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. J. Brabec, “Organic photovoltaics: technology and market,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 273–292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gassenbauer and A. Klein, “Electronic surface properties of rf-magnetron sputtered In2O3: Sn,” Solid State Ion. 173(1-4), 141–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, P.

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amir, D.

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Armstrong, N. R.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baek, N. S.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barquinha, P.

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, “Organic photovoltaics: technology and market,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 273–292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bredas, J. L.

B. Kippelen and J. L. Bredas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheun, H.

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Cho, W. J.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Kim, S. W. Jeong, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3071–3074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. H.

Y. S. Park, K. H. Choi, and H. K. Kim, “Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Flexible IZO Electrode Grown on PET Substrate for Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(12), H426–H429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M. H.

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choo, D. J.

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, K.

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, J.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denk, P.

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Edleman, N. L.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, I.

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortunato, E.

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuentes-Hernandez, C.

J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Gassenbauer, Y.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gassenbauer and A. Klein, “Electronic surface properties of rf-magnetron sputtered In2O3: Sn,” Solid State Ion. 173(1-4), 141–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ginley, D. S.

M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glatthaar, M.

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, S. P.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hau, S. K.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hinsch, A.

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. N.

H. C. Pan, M. H. Shiao, C. Y. Su, and C. N. Hsiao, “Influence of sputtering parameter on the optical and electrical properties of zinc-doped indium oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(4), 1187–1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. J.

B. Yaglioglu, Y. J. Huang, H. Y. Yeom, and D. C. Paine, “A study of amorphous and crystalline phases in In2O3-10wt.% ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 89–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, N.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. W.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Kim, S. W. Jeong, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3071–3074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, W. I.

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaijo, A.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, Y.

T. Kuwabara, Y. Kawahara, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Characterization of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells with a ZnO Layer as the Electron Collection Electrode by ac Impedance Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2107–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. G.

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Kim, S. W. Jeong, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3071–3074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Park, K. H. Choi, and H. K. Kim, “Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Flexible IZO Electrode Grown on PET Substrate for Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(12), H426–H429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Kim, S. J.

J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen and J. L. Bredas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Klein, A.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gassenbauer and A. Klein, “Electronic surface properties of rf-magnetron sputtered In2O3: Sn,” Solid State Ion. 173(1-4), 141–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kon, M.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kopidakis, N.

M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korber, C.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, T.

T. Kuwabara, Y. Kawahara, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Characterization of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells with a ZnO Layer as the Electron Collection Electrode by ac Impedance Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2107–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. H.

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewer, P.

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luther, J.

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mason, T. O.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morana, M.

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niggemann, M.

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, E.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. C.

M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O'Malley, K.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paine, D. C.

B. Yaglioglu, Y. J. Huang, H. Y. Yeom, and D. C. Paine, “A study of amorphous and crystalline phases in In2O3-10wt.% ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 89–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H. C.

H. C. Pan, M. H. Shiao, C. Y. Su, and C. N. Hsiao, “Influence of sputtering parameter on the optical and electrical properties of zinc-doped indium oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(4), 1187–1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Kim, S. W. Jeong, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3071–3074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Park, K. H. Choi, and H. K. Kim, “Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Flexible IZO Electrode Grown on PET Substrate for Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(12), H426–H429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, L.

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pimentel, A.

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Potscavage, W. J.

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Riede, M.

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasabayashi, T.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauberlich, F.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schafranek, R.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schilinsky, P.

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaheen, S. E.

M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, M. H.

H. C. Pan, M. H. Shiao, C. Y. Su, and C. N. Hsiao, “Influence of sputtering parameter on the optical and electrical properties of zinc-doped indium oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(4), 1187–1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shigesato, Y.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Song, P. K.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

H. C. Pan, M. H. Shiao, C. Y. Su, and C. N. Hsiao, “Influence of sputtering parameter on the optical and electrical properties of zinc-doped indium oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(4), 1187–1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

T. Kuwabara, Y. Kawahara, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Characterization of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells with a ZnO Layer as the Electron Collection Electrode by ac Impedance Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2107–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Utsumi, K.

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veinot, J. G. C.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wachau, A.

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waldauf, C.

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, M. S.

M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yaglioglu, B.

B. Yaglioglu, Y. J. Huang, H. Y. Yeom, and D. C. Paine, “A study of amorphous and crystalline phases in In2O3-10wt.% ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 89–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Kuwabara, Y. Kawahara, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Characterization of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells with a ZnO Layer as the Electron Collection Electrode by ac Impedance Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2107–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, H. Y.

B. Yaglioglu, Y. J. Huang, H. Y. Yeom, and D. C. Paine, “A study of amorphous and crystalline phases in In2O3-10wt.% ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 89–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yip, H. L.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

Zimmermann, B.

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J. Y.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces (1)

T. Kuwabara, Y. Kawahara, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Characterization of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells with a ZnO Layer as the Electron Collection Electrode by ac Impedance Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2107–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. A. Choulis, and C. J. Brabec, “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (2)

J. W. Kang, W. I. Jeong, J. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, D. G. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using amorphous indium zinc oxide anode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(6), J75–J78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Park, K. H. Choi, and H. K. Kim, “Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Flexible IZO Electrode Grown on PET Substrate for Flexible Organic Solar Cells,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(12), H426–H429 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

B. Kippelen and J. L. Bredas, “Organic photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(3), 251–261 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y. H. Zhou, H. Cheun, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted organic solar cells with ITO electrodes modified with an ultrathin Al2O3 buffer layer deposited by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(29), 6189–6194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. Martins, P. Almeida, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, A. Pimentel, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Electron transport and optical characteristics in amorphous indium zinc oxide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1471–1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. H. Zhou, W. J. Potscavage, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. Kim, J. Shim, D. Amir, and B. Kippelen, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO processed by atomic layer deposition in Inverted polymer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C . submitted.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. C. Pan, M. H. Shiao, C. Y. Su, and C. N. Hsiao, “Influence of sputtering parameter on the optical and electrical properties of zinc-doped indium oxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(4), 1187–1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (2)

S. H. Han, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. Jang, and D. J. Choo, “Stable organic thin-film transistor in a pixel for plastic electronics,” Org. Electron. 9(6), 1040–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, S. J. Kim, S. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Flexible hybrid complementary inverters with high gain and balanced noise margins using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1074–1078 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

C. J. Brabec, “Organic photovoltaics: technology and market,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83(2-3), 273–292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ion. (1)

Y. Gassenbauer and A. Klein, “Electronic surface properties of rf-magnetron sputtered In2O3: Sn,” Solid State Ion. 173(1-4), 141–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

T. J. Marks, J. G. C. Veinot, J. Cui, H. Yan, A. Wang, N. L. Edleman, J. Ni, Q. Huang, P. Lee, and N. R. Armstrong, “Progress in high work function TCO OLED anode alternatives and OLED nanopixelation,” Synth. Met. 127(1-3), 29–35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

B. Yaglioglu, Y. J. Huang, H. Y. Yeom, and D. C. Paine, “A study of amorphous and crystalline phases in In2O3-10wt.% ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 496(1), 89–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasabayashi, N. Ito, E. Nishimura, M. Kon, P. K. Song, K. Utsumi, A. Kaijo, and Y. Shigesato, “Comparative study on structure and internal stress in tin-doped indium oxide and indium-zinc oxide films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 445(2), 219–223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Park, H. K. Kim, S. W. Jeong, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3071–3074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Klein, C. Korber, A. Wachau, F. Sauberlich, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, S. P. Harvey, and T. O. Mason, “Surface potentials of magnetron sputtered transparent conducting oxides,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1197–1203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Glatthaar, M. Niggemann, B. Zimmermann, P. Lewer, M. Riede, A. Hinsch, and J. Luther, “Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 298–300 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD patterns of the IZO film (200-nm-thick) deposited by RF sputtering and post-annealed at various temperatures for 60 min in air. Inset: AFM image (1 × 1 μm2) of the a-IZO (200-nm-thick) film deposited at RT. (b) The real component of the refractive index and the square of the absorption coefficient (α) of a-IZO. Inset: Optical transmittance spectra of an a-IZO (200-nm-thick) and an ITO (150-nm-thick) films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Device structure of an inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cell with an a-IZO electrode. (b) Energy level diagram of the components of the device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) J-V characteristics and (b) EQE (%) for best inverted devices with the structures of a-IZO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag and ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Averagea device performance of inverted devices with the structures of a-IZO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag and ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag.

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