Abstract

In order to fabricate photovoltaic (PV) cells incorporating light-trapping electrodes, flexible foil substrates, or more than one junction, illumination through the top-contact (i.e.: non-substrate) side of a photovoltaic device is desirable. We investigate the relative collection efficiency for illumination through the top vs. bottom of PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) PV devices. The external quantum efficiency spectra of FTO/TiO2/PbS CQD/ITO PV devices with various PbS layer thicknesses were measured for illumination through either the top (ITO) or bottom (FTO) contacts. By comparing the relative shapes and intensities of these spectra with those calculated from an estimation of the carrier generation profile and the internal quantum efficiency as a function of distance from the TiO2 interface in the devices, a substantial dead zone, where carrier extraction is dramatically reduced, is identified near the ITO top contact. The implications for device design, and possible means of avoiding the formation of such a dead zone, are discussed.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. A. R. Barkhouse, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Thiols passivate recombination centers in colloidal quantum dots leading to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2356–2362 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. R. Barkhouse, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Thiols passivate recombination centers in colloidal quantum dots leading to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2356–2362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Abou-Ras, D.

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkhouse, A. R.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkhouse, D. A. R.

D. A. R. Barkhouse, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Thiols passivate recombination centers in colloidal quantum dots leading to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2356–2362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Batzner, D. L.

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilger, G.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bremaud, D.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulow, T.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chueh, Y. L.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clifford, J. P.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Debnath, R.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Do, J. W.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobeli, M.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, R. J.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enriquez, J. P.

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ergen, O.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ernits, K.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flugge, H.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, M. C.

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, F. J.

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, S.

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. C.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogland, S.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Javey, A.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, K. W.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaelin, M.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalin, M.

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koleilat, G. I.

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Konstantatos, G.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalsky, W.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, I. J.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, M.

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leu, P. W.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levina, L.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. R. Barkhouse, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Thiols passivate recombination centers in colloidal quantum dots leading to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2356–2362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K. C.

K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. H.

K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luther, J. M.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathew, X.

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moriwaki, A.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myrskog, S. H.

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nazeeruddin, M. K.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neale, S.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nozik, A. J.

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pattantyus-Abraham, A. G.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. R. Barkhouse, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Thiols passivate recombination centers in colloidal quantum dots leading to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2356–2362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, I.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razavi, H.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reese, M. O.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichertz, L. A.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedl, T.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, A.

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudmann, D.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. R. Barkhouse, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Thiols passivate recombination centers in colloidal quantum dots leading to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2356–2362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shukla, H.

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, C. W.

K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terheggen, A.

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A. N.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, T.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y. Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zogg, H.

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. R. Barkhouse, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Thiols passivate recombination centers in colloidal quantum dots leading to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2356–2362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Koleilat, L. Levina, H. Shukla, S. H. Myrskog, S. Hinds, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient, stable infrared photovoltaics based on solution-cast colloidal quantum dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, T. Winkler, T. Bulow, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient semitransparent inverted organic solar cells with indium tin oxide top electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

K. C. Liu, C. W. Teng, Y. H. Lu, J. H. Lee, and L. C. Chen, “Improving the performance of transparent PLEDs with LiF/Ag/ITO cathode,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J120–J122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, M. C. Beard, S. Choi, J. M. Luther, M. C. Hanna, and A. J. Nozik, “Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3904–3910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

Z. Y. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovoltaics

A. Romeo, A. Terheggen, D. Abou-Ras, D. L. Batzner, F. J. Haug, M. Kalin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Development of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and CdTe solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 93–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

D. Bremaud, D. Rudmann, M. Kaelin, K. Ernits, G. Bilger, M. Dobeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 on Al foils and the effects of Al during chemical bath deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(15), 5857–5861 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional SEM image of a device prior to top contact deposition. The scale bar (bottom left) is 500 nm. (b) Electron energy band diagram of a depleted heterojunction (DH) device. (c) Internal quantum efficiency profile in the PbS layer for three DH devices with PbS thicknesses of 60nm, 120nm, and 230nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Carrier generation profile in the PbS layer of an FTO/TiO2/PbS CQD/ITO device that is 60 (top), 120 (middle), or 230 (bottom) nm thick, illuminated from the top (left) or bottom (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a-c) and calculated (d-f) EQE spectra, for illumination from either the top or bottom, for devices with PbS layers that are 60nm (a,d), 120nm (b,e), and 230nm (c,f) thick. The fitting parameters were: depletion width: 50nm, diffusion length: 10nm, dead zone width: 40nm, IQE: 0.5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Carrier extraction profile for top (a-c) and bottom (d-f) illumination, for devices with a PbS layer that is 60nm (a,d), 120nm (b,e), or 230nm (c,f) thick. The devices have a depletion width of 60nm, diffusion length of 10nm, dead zone width of 40nm, and an IQE of 0.5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

I-V curves of FTO/TiO2/PbS CQD/(ITO or Au/ITO) devices under 975nm illumination at 100 mW/cm2.

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