Abstract

We propose a novel solar cell architecture consisting of multiple fiber-based photovoltaic (PV) cells. Each PV fiber element is designed to maximize the power conversion efficiency within a narrow band of the incident solar spectrum, while reflecting other spectral components through the use of optical microcavity effects and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) coatings. Combining PV fibers with complementary absorption and reflection characteristics into volume-filling arrays enables spectrally tuned modules having an effective dispersion element intrinsic to the architecture, resulting in high external quantum efficiency over the incident spectrum. While this new reflective tandem architecture is not limited to one particular material system, here we apply the concept to organic PV (OPV) cells that use a metal-organic-metal-dielectric layer structure, and calculate the expected performance of such arrays. Using realistic material properties for organic absorbers, transport layers, metallic electrodes, and DBR coatings, 17% power conversion efficiency can be reached.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

G. D. Wei, S. Y. Wang, K. Renshaw, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Solution-processed squaraine bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1927–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Meyer and H. Ade, “The effect of angle of incidence on the optical field distribution within thin film organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim and J. Kim, “Organic photovoltaic cell in lateral-tandem configuration employing continuously-tuned microcavity sub-cells,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19987–19994 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Agrawal and P. Peumans, “Broadband optical absorption enhancement through coherent light trapping in thin-film photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5385–5396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O'Connor, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Fiber based organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, R. R. Lunt, and S. R. Forrest, “Simultaneous heterojunction organic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, C. Haughn, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cells doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, Y. Zhao, and M. Shtein, “Enhanced optical field intensity distribution in organic photovoltaic devices using external coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Wienk, M. P. Struijk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Low band gap polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 488–491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells: An overview,” J. Mater. Res. 19(7), 1924–1945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe, N. Arnold, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Modeling the optical absorption within conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 80(1), 105–113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: ultra-high conversion efficiency at low cost,” Prog. Photovoltaics 9(2), 123–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

F. J. López-Hernández, R. Pérez-Jiménez, and A. Santamarı́a, “Ray-tracing algorithms for fast calculation of the channel impulse response on diffuse IR wireless indoor channels,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2775–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal, “Chem. “Charge-separation energy in films of pi-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3-4), 181–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Premoli and M. L. Rastello, “Minimax refining of wide-band antireflection coatings for wide angular incidence,” Appl. Opt. 33(10), 2018–2024 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ade, H.

A. Meyer and H. Ade, “The effect of angle of incidence on the optical field distribution within thin film organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

An, K. H.

B. O'Connor, C. Haughn, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, Y. Zhao, and M. Shtein, “Enhanced optical field intensity distribution in organic photovoltaic devices using external coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, V.

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cells doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, N.

H. Hoppe, N. Arnold, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Modeling the optical absorption within conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 80(1), 105–113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blom, P. W. M.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Z. Z.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N. E.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dante, M.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, B.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Denk, P.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, R. D.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edmondson, K. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, C. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forberich, K.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

G. D. Wei, S. Y. Wang, K. Renshaw, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Solution-processed squaraine bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1927–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yang, R. R. Lunt, and S. R. Forrest, “Simultaneous heterojunction organic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fromherz, T.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaudiana, R. A.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: ultra-high conversion efficiency at low cost,” Prog. Photovoltaics 9(2), 123–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hadipour, A.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haughn, C.

B. O'Connor, C. Haughn, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, I. G.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal, “Chem. “Charge-separation energy in films of pi-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3-4), 181–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hingerl, K.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells: An overview,” J. Mater. Res. 19(7), 1924–1945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe, N. Arnold, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Modeling the optical absorption within conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 80(1), 105–113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cells doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Wienk, M. P. Struijk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Low band gap polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 488–491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, A.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal, “Chem. “Charge-separation energy in films of pi-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3-4), 181–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karam, N. H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, R. R.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G. S.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kooistra, F. B.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koppe, M.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Law, D. C.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. R.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Hernández, F. J.

F. J. López-Hernández, R. Pérez-Jiménez, and A. Santamarı́a, “Ray-tracing algorithms for fast calculation of the channel impulse response on diffuse IR wireless indoor channels,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2775–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, R. R.

F. Yang, R. R. Lunt, and S. R. Forrest, “Simultaneous heterojunction organic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, D.

H. Hoppe, N. Arnold, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Modeling the optical absorption within conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 80(1), 105–113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, A.

A. Meyer and H. Ade, “The effect of angle of incidence on the optical field distribution within thin film organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mühlbacher, D.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T. Q.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Keeffe, T. W.

O'Connor, B.

B. O'Connor, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Fiber based organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, C. Haughn, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, Y. Zhao, and M. Shtein, “Enhanced optical field intensity distribution in organic photovoltaic devices using external coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Partlow, D. P.

Pascal, R. A.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal, “Chem. “Charge-separation energy in films of pi-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3-4), 181–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Jiménez, R.

F. J. López-Hernández, R. Pérez-Jiménez, and A. Santamarı́a, “Ray-tracing algorithms for fast calculation of the channel impulse response on diffuse IR wireless indoor channels,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2775–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

M. Agrawal and P. Peumans, “Broadband optical absorption enhancement through coherent light trapping in thin-film photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5385–5396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pipe, K. P.

B. O'Connor, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Fiber based organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, C. Haughn, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, Y. Zhao, and M. Shtein, “Enhanced optical field intensity distribution in organic photovoltaic devices using external coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Premoli, A.

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rastello, M. L.

Renshaw, K.

G. D. Wei, S. Y. Wang, K. Renshaw, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Solution-processed squaraine bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1927–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rim, S. B.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santamari´a, A.

F. J. López-Hernández, R. Pérez-Jiménez, and A. Santamarı́a, “Ray-tracing algorithms for fast calculation of the channel impulse response on diffuse IR wireless indoor channels,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2775–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells: An overview,” J. Mater. Res. 19(7), 1924–1945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe, N. Arnold, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Modeling the optical absorption within conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 80(1), 105–113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scully, S. R.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sherif, R. A.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Shtein, M.

B. O'Connor, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Fiber based organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, C. Haughn, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, Y. Zhao, and M. Shtein, “Enhanced optical field intensity distribution in organic photovoltaic devices using external coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soos, Z. G.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal, “Chem. “Charge-separation energy in films of pi-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3-4), 181–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Struijk, M. P.

M. M. Wienk, M. P. Struijk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Low band gap polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 488–491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. W.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

G. D. Wei, S. Y. Wang, K. Renshaw, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Solution-processed squaraine bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1927–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomis, I.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turbiez, M. G. R.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tvingstedt, K.

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cells doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waldauf, C.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. Z.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

G. D. Wei, S. Y. Wang, K. Renshaw, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Solution-processed squaraine bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1927–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, G. D.

G. D. Wei, S. Y. Wang, K. Renshaw, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Solution-processed squaraine bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1927–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wienk, M. M.

M. M. Wienk, M. P. Struijk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Low band gap polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 488–491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wildeman, J.

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yakimov, A.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, R. R. Lunt, and S. R. Forrest, “Simultaneous heterojunction organic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cells doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, Y. Zhao, and M. Shtein, “Enhanced optical field intensity distribution in organic photovoltaic devices using external coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, D. C.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

G. D. Wei, S. Y. Wang, K. Renshaw, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Solution-processed squaraine bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” ACS Nano 4(4), 1927–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. Hadipour, B. de Boer, J. Wildeman, F. B. Kooistra, J. C. Hummelen, M. G. R. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, R. A. J. Janssen, and P. W. M. Blom, “Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(14), 1897–1903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, and D. C. Zou, “Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells – Towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, R. R. Lunt, and S. R. Forrest, “Simultaneous heterojunction organic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, C. Haughn, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Fiber based organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, K. P. Pipe, Y. Zhao, and M. Shtein, “Enhanced optical field intensity distribution in organic photovoltaic devices using external coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, and O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cells doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. M. Wienk, M. P. Struijk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Low band gap polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 488–491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal, “Chem. “Charge-separation energy in films of pi-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3-4), 181–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Meyer and H. Ade, “The effect of angle of incidence on the optical field distribution within thin film organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells: An overview,” J. Mater. Res. 19(7), 1924–1945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. J. López-Hernández, R. Pérez-Jiménez, and A. Santamarı́a, “Ray-tracing algorithms for fast calculation of the channel impulse response on diffuse IR wireless indoor channels,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2775–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Prog. Photovoltaics (1)

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: ultra-high conversion efficiency at low cost,” Prog. Photovoltaics 9(2), 123–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science 324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

H. Hoppe, N. Arnold, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Modeling the optical absorption within conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 80(1), 105–113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 3rd Ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2001).

The MatchWorks, Inc., Matlab R2009a (2009).

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press; 1st edition, 1985).

H. Kuraseko, T. Nakamura, S. Toda, H. Koaizawa, H. Jia, and M. Kondo, “Development of flexible fiber-type poly-Si solar cell,” Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Vols. 1–2 1380–1383 (2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tandem solar cell designs including (a) a traditional transmissive solar cell design, (b) a reflective tandem solar cell in a V-shape configuration, and (c) an example of a reflective fiber based tandem cell design consisting of three rows of three spectrally-tuned photovoltaic sub-cells. The fiber OPV cells consist of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), a thick spacer layer, a transparent top electrode, the active organic layers, and finally an optically thick center electrode. Note that the fibers are not drawn to scale and are expected to be no less than 50 μm in diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Device structures modeled for a single solar cell design: (a) planar metal-organic-metal solar cell, (b) fiber OPV cell geometry, (c) row of fibers, and (d) matrix of fiber cells. (e) Qualitative view of the energy band structure for the solar cell in all configurations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output of the ray-tracing program that is used to analyze periodic multi-fiber OPV systems. Sample rays are traced to visually inspect the performance of the bundled fiber OPV system. Rays that leave the system are shown in green, and rays from the emitter and those that are incident on at least two bodies are shown in blue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a-d) 2-dimensional coordinates for the best-performing fiber-OPV bundles for 1, 2, 3, and 10-row systems. These geometries are determined through a non-exhaustive search and further optimization is likely possible. The coordinates are given in units of fiber diameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Predicted short circuit current for the fiber bundles ranging from a single fiber, to a fiber system consisting of 20 rows. Coordinates for the 1, 2, 3 and 10 row systems are given in Fig. 4. The number of sub-cells is varied from 1 to 4 designs with details of these designs provided in Table 1. Results for a similar OPV cell based on a planar heterojunction structure with CuPc and C60 as the donor-acceptor materials are shown for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Performance parameters for the 10-row, 4 color-tuned OPV fiber bundle. (a) External quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of the planar counterparts of the 4 microcavity tuned fiber OPV cells under normal illuminations. The reflectivity of one of the cells is also given to illustrate the high reflectivity for off-resonant wavelengths. (b) Total EQE along with the contributions of the separate color-tuned fibers in the 10-row, 4 color-tuned bundle. Predicted open circuit voltage is also given for each sub-cell.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The angular dependence of a planar metal-organic-metal OPV device and a 2-row fiber bundle having the same cell design. Also plotted is the performance of the 10-row, 3 color-tuned fiber bundle with the layout given in Fig. 4. The variation in the incident angle for the bundle is illustrated in Fig. 1c. The 10-row fiber bundle is asymmetric and the performance is therefore given for 3-angle variations. The relative responsivity is a measure of performance assuming the intensity on the top surface of the solar cell is constant with angle.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical absorption band, expected VOC, and device structure of the fiber sub-cells used in the multi-fiber tandem OPV cells modeled in Fig. 4 a

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