Abstract

For the phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pcLEDs), the interaction of the illuminating energy with the phosphor would not just behave as a simple wavelength-converting phenomenon, but also a function of various combinations of illumination and viewing geometries. This paper presents a methodology to characterize the converting and scattering mechanisms of the phosphor layer in the pcLEDs by the measured bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs). A commercially available pcLED with conformal phosphor coating was used to examine the validity of the proposed model. The close agreement with the measurement illustrates that the proposed characterization opens new perspectives for phosphor-based conversion and scattering feature for white lighting uses.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. S. Nakamura, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).
  2. R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. http://www.philipslumileds.com/technology/whitelighting.cfm
  4. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LEDs efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solid A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).
  8. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishi, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Env. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, and Y. Gu, “Investigation of the optical properties of YAG: Ce phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 6337 (2006).
  12. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Radiometric and Photometric Characteristics of Materials and their Measurement, 2ndEdition, (CIE 38 (TC-2.3), Paris, 1977).
  13. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, (National Bureau of Standards (US), 1977), Monograph 160.
  14. X. Francois Sillion, and Claude Puech, Radiosity and Global Illumination, (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, 1994).
  15. J. de Boer, “Modelling indoor illumination by complex fenestration systems based on bidirectional photometric data,” Energy Build. 38(7), 849–868 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C.-H. Tien and C.-H. Hung, “An iterative model of diffuse illumination from bidirectional photometric data,” Opt. Express 17(2), 723–732 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. E. Becker, “Evaluation and characterization of display reflectance,” Displays 19(1), 35–54 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. E. Becker, “Display Reflectance: Basics, Measurement, and Rating,” J. SID 14(11), 1003–1017 (2006).
  19. H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, Y.-P. Huang, J. Chen, J. Lin, and W.-C. Chang, “Phosphor conformal coating by a novel spray method for white light-emitting diodes as applied to liquid-crystal backlight module,” in proc. International Display Research Conference (Rome, Italy, 2009) 17.5.
  20. M. Shaw and T. Goodman, “Array-based goniospectroradiometer for measurement of spectral radiant intensity and spectral total flux of light sources,” Appl. Opt. 47(14), 2637–2647 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

M. Shaw and T. Goodman, “Array-based goniospectroradiometer for measurement of spectral radiant intensity and spectral total flux of light sources,” Appl. Opt. 47(14), 2637–2647 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. E. Becker, “Display Reflectance: Basics, Measurement, and Rating,” J. SID 14(11), 1003–1017 (2006).

J. de Boer, “Modelling indoor illumination by complex fenestration systems based on bidirectional photometric data,” Energy Build. 38(7), 849–868 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LEDs efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solid A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishi, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Env. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. E. Becker, “Evaluation and characterization of display reflectance,” Displays 19(1), 35–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M. E.

M. E. Becker, “Display Reflectance: Basics, Measurement, and Rating,” J. SID 14(11), 1003–1017 (2006).

M. E. Becker, “Evaluation and characterization of display reflectance,” Displays 19(1), 35–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

J. de Boer, “Modelling indoor illumination by complex fenestration systems based on bidirectional photometric data,” Energy Build. 38(7), 849–868 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LEDs efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solid A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, T.

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LEDs efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solid A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-T.

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

Huang, Y.-P.

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

Hung, C.-H.

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

C.-H. Tien and C.-H. Hung, “An iterative model of diffuse illumination from bidirectional photometric data,” Opt. Express 17(2), 723–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Igarashi, T.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imai, Y.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishi, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Env. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishi, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishi, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Env. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, Y.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kusunoki, T.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nada, N.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LEDs efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solid A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohsako, J.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M.

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C.-H.

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

C.-H. Tien and C.-H. Hung, “An iterative model of diffuse illumination from bidirectional photometric data,” Opt. Express 17(2), 723–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trottier, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-C.

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

Tsukahara, T.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, B.-W.

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishi, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Env. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LEDs efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solid A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

M. E. Becker, “Evaluation and characterization of display reflectance,” Displays 19(1), 35–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Energy Build. (1)

J. de Boer, “Modelling indoor illumination by complex fenestration systems based on bidirectional photometric data,” Energy Build. 38(7), 849–868 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR—Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Vis. Env. (1)

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishi, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Env. 27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. SID (1)

M. E. Becker, “Display Reflectance: Basics, Measurement, and Rating,” J. SID 14(11), 1003–1017 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Stat. Solid A (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LEDs efficiency,” Phys. Stat. Solid A 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C.-H. Tien, C.-H. Hung, B.-W. Xiao, H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting by blue LEDs array with remote phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 761707 (2010).

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

Y. Ito, T. Tsukahara, S. Masuda, T. Yoshida, N. Nada, T. Igarashi, T. Kusunoki, and J. Ohsako, “Optical design of phosphor sheet structure in LED backlight system,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39(1), 866–869 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

S. Nakamura, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).

http://www.philipslumileds.com/technology/whitelighting.cfm

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, Y.-P. Huang, J. Chen, J. Lin, and W.-C. Chang, “Phosphor conformal coating by a novel spray method for white light-emitting diodes as applied to liquid-crystal backlight module,” in proc. International Display Research Conference (Rome, Italy, 2009) 17.5.

Y. Zhu, N. Narendran, and Y. Gu, “Investigation of the optical properties of YAG: Ce phosphor,” Proc. SPIE 6337 (2006).

Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Radiometric and Photometric Characteristics of Materials and their Measurement, 2ndEdition, (CIE 38 (TC-2.3), Paris, 1977).

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, (National Bureau of Standards (US), 1977), Monograph 160.

X. Francois Sillion, and Claude Puech, Radiosity and Global Illumination, (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, 1994).

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