Abstract

We present the photoacoustic imaging velocimetry (PAIV) method for flow-field measurement based on a linear transducer array. The PAIV method is realized by using a Q-switched pulsed laser, a linear transducer array, a parallel data-acquisition equipment and dynamic focusing reconstruction. Tracers used to track liquid flow field were real-timely detected, two-dimensional (2-D) flow visualization was successfully reached, and flow parameters were acquired by measuring the movement of the tracer. Experimental results revealed that the PAIV method would be developed into 3-D imaging velocimetry for flow-field measurement, and potentially applied to research the security and targeting efficiency of optical nano-material probes.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. I. Siphanto, K. K. Thumma, R. G. Kolkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, F. F. de Mul, J. W. van Neck, L. N. van Adrichem, and W. Steenbergen, “Serial noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of neovascularization in tumor angiogenesis,” Opt. Express 13(1), 89–95 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. K. Liao, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, and P. C. Li, “Nanorod-based flow estimation using a high-frame-rate photoacoustic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064006–064009 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).
  5. Z. Yuan, C. Wu, H. Zhao, and H. Jiang, “Imaging of small nanoparticle-containing objects by finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 3054–3056 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Yuan, Q. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18076–18081 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  10. S. Manohar, S. E. Vaartjes, J. C. van Hespen, J. M. Klaase, F. M. van den Engh, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Initial results of in vivo non-invasive cancer imaging in the human breast using near-infrared photoacoustics,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12277–12285 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. H. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic ophthalmic angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Ephrat, M. Roumeliotis, F. S. Prato, and J. J. L. Carson, “3D photoacoustic imaging of a moving target,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770W–1-9 (2009).
  21. P. Ephrat, M. Roumeliotis, F. S. Prato, and J. J. L. Carson, “Four-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of moving targets,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21570–21581 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. W. Yang, D. Xing, S. H. Yang, and L. Z. Xiang, “Fast full-view photoacoustic imaging by combined scanning with a linear transducer array,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15566–15575 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. M. Nie, D. Xing, and S. H. Yang, “In vivo detection and imaging of low-density foreign body with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(8), 3429–3437 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. K. Liao, M. L. Li, and P. C. Li, “Optoacoustic imaging with synthetic aperture focusing and coherence weighting,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2506–2508 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. J. Welch, X. Deng, H. Snellen, and C. S. Wilcox, “Validation of miniature ultrasonic transit-time flow probes for measurement of renal blood flow in rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 268, F175–F178 (1995).
  26. X. Jin and L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic tomography with correction for acoustic speed variations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(24), 6437–6448 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, “Ultrafast two-dimensional ultrasonic speckle velocimetry: A tool in flow imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1155–1157 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, “Noninvasive measurement of steady and pulsating velocity profiles and shear rates in arteries using echo PIV: in vitro validation studies,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32(8), 1067–1076 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. H. Fang and L. V. Wang, “M-mode photoacoustic particle flow imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 671–673 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (5)

H. Fang and L. V. Wang, “M-mode photoacoustic particle flow imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 671–673 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Nie, D. Xing, and S. H. Yang, “In vivo detection and imaging of low-density foreign body with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(8), 3429–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. H. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ephrat, M. Roumeliotis, F. S. Prato, and J. J. L. Carson, “Four-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of moving targets,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21570–21581 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

S. Manohar, S. E. Vaartjes, J. C. van Hespen, J. M. Klaase, F. M. van den Engh, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Initial results of in vivo non-invasive cancer imaging in the human breast using near-infrared photoacoustics,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12277–12285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Yang, D. Xing, S. H. Yang, and L. Z. Xiang, “Fast full-view photoacoustic imaging by combined scanning with a linear transducer array,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15566–15575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18076–18081 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Liao, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, and P. C. Li, “Nanorod-based flow estimation using a high-frame-rate photoacoustic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064006–064009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic tomography with correction for acoustic speed variations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(24), 6437–6448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. I. Siphanto, K. K. Thumma, R. G. Kolkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, F. F. de Mul, J. W. van Neck, L. N. van Adrichem, and W. Steenbergen, “Serial noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of neovascularization in tumor angiogenesis,” Opt. Express 13(1), 89–95 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, C. Wu, H. Zhao, and H. Jiang, “Imaging of small nanoparticle-containing objects by finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 3054–3056 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. K. Liao, M. L. Li, and P. C. Li, “Optoacoustic imaging with synthetic aperture focusing and coherence weighting,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, “Noninvasive measurement of steady and pulsating velocity profiles and shear rates in arteries using echo PIV: in vitro validation studies,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32(8), 1067–1076 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, “Ultrafast two-dimensional ultrasonic speckle velocimetry: A tool in flow imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1155–1157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

W. J. Welch, X. Deng, H. Snellen, and C. S. Wilcox, “Validation of miniature ultrasonic transit-time flow probes for measurement of renal blood flow in rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 268, F175–F178 (1995).

Beard, P.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertuglia, S.

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitton, R.

Bodapati, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, P. N.

D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, P. R.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carson, J. J. L.

Chen, H.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Y.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colantuoni, A.

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H. J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Zerda, A.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F.

Delpy, D.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, X.

W. J. Welch, X. Deng, H. Snellen, and C. S. Wilcox, “Validation of miniature ultrasonic transit-time flow probes for measurement of renal blood flow in rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 268, F175–F178 (1995).

Deyo, D. J

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ephrat, P.

Ermilov, S. A.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

Fink, M.

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, “Ultrafast two-dimensional ultrasonic speckle velocimetry: A tool in flow imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1155–1157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foster, F. S.

D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frenz, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goertz, D. E.

D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golster, H.

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzberg, J.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, “Noninvasive measurement of steady and pulsating velocity profiles and shear rates in arteries using echo PIV: in vitro validation studies,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32(8), 1067–1076 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

Huang, S. W.

C. K. Liao, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, and P. C. Li, “Nanorod-based flow estimation using a high-frame-rate photoacoustic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064006–064009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Jin, X.

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic tomography with correction for acoustic speed variations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(24), 6437–6448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, T.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerbel, R. S.

D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keren, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khamapirad, T.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. B.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, “Noninvasive measurement of steady and pulsating velocity profiles and shear rates in arteries using echo PIV: in vitro validation studies,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32(8), 1067–1076 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiser, W. L.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Klaase, J. M.

Kolkman, R. G.

Kruger, G. A.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ku, G.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. H. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacewell, R.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, C.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, “Noninvasive measurement of steady and pulsating velocity profiles and shear rates in arteries using echo PIV: in vitro validation studies,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32(8), 1067–1076 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

larina, I. V

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laufer, J.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemor, R.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonard, M. H.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. H.

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. H. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M. L.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).

C. K. Liao, M. L. Li, and P. C. Li, “Optoacoustic imaging with synthetic aperture focusing and coherence weighting,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P. C.

C. K. Liao, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, and P. C. Li, “Nanorod-based flow estimation using a high-frame-rate photoacoustic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064006–064009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Liao, M. L. Li, and P. C. Li, “Optoacoustic imaging with synthetic aperture focusing and coherence weighting,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, C. K.

C. K. Liao, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, and P. C. Li, “Nanorod-based flow estimation using a high-frame-rate photoacoustic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064006–064009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Liao, M. L. Li, and P. C. Li, “Optoacoustic imaging with synthetic aperture focusing and coherence weighting,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindén, M.

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lungu, G.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lungu, G. F.

G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).

Ma, T. J.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manneville, S.

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, “Ultrafast two-dimensional ultrasonic speckle velocimetry: A tool in flow imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1155–1157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, S.

Maslov, K.

S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic ophthalmic angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, K.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, K. D.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Miller, T.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, H. M.

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, L. M.

L. M. Nie, D. Xing, and S. H. Yang, “In vivo detection and imaging of low-density foreign body with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(8), 3429–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederhauser, J. J.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, G.

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, J. T.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oralkan, O.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. H. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prato, F. S.

Prough, D. S

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Reynolds, H. E.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Roper, S. N.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roumeliotis, M.

Sandrin, L.

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, “Ultrafast two-dimensional ultrasonic speckle velocimetry: A tool in flow imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1155–1157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shandas, R.

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, “Noninvasive measurement of steady and pulsating velocity profiles and shear rates in arteries using echo PIV: in vitro validation studies,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32(8), 1067–1076 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shashkov, E. V.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Siphanto, R. I.

Sjöberg, F.

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. R.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snellen, H.

W. J. Welch, X. Deng, H. Snellen, and C. S. Wilcox, “Validation of miniature ultrasonic transit-time flow probes for measurement of renal blood flow in rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 268, F175–F178 (1995).

Song, L.

Steenbergen, W.

Stoica, G.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thumma, K. K.

Vaartjes, S. E.

Vaithilingam, S.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Adrichem, L. N.

van den Engh, F. M.

van Hespen, J. C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

van Neck, J. W.

Wang, L. V.

S. Hu, B. Rao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic ophthalmic angiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 1 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang and L. V. Wang, “M-mode photoacoustic particle flow imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 671–673 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. H. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic tomography with correction for acoustic speed variations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(24), 6437–6448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, W.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, P.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C. W.

C. K. Liao, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, and P. C. Li, “Nanorod-based flow estimation using a high-frame-rate photoacoustic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064006–064009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welch, W. J.

W. J. Welch, X. Deng, H. Snellen, and C. S. Wilcox, “Validation of miniature ultrasonic transit-time flow probes for measurement of renal blood flow in rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 268, F175–F178 (1995).

Wilcox, C. S.

W. J. Welch, X. Deng, H. Snellen, and C. S. Wilcox, “Validation of miniature ultrasonic transit-time flow probes for measurement of renal blood flow in rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 268, F175–F178 (1995).

Wu, C.

Xiang, L. Z.

Xie, X.

G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. Y.

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xing, D.

L. M. Nie, D. Xing, and S. H. Yang, “In vivo detection and imaging of low-density foreign body with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(8), 3429–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Yang, D. Xing, S. H. Yang, and L. Z. Xiang, “Fast full-view photoacoustic imaging by combined scanning with a linear transducer array,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15566–15575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D. W.

Yang, L.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. H.

L. M. Nie, D. Xing, and S. H. Yang, “In vivo detection and imaging of low-density foreign body with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(8), 3429–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Yang, D. Xing, S. H. Yang, and L. Z. Xiang, “Fast full-view photoacoustic imaging by combined scanning with a linear transducer array,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15566–15575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J. L.

D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Zavaleta, C.

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemp, R. J.

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

Zharov, V. P.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (1)

W. J. Welch, X. Deng, H. Snellen, and C. S. Wilcox, “Validation of miniature ultrasonic transit-time flow probes for measurement of renal blood flow in rats,” Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 268, F175–F178 (1995).

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

H. B. Kim, J. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas, “Noninvasive measurement of steady and pulsating velocity profiles and shear rates in arteries using echo PIV: in vitro validation studies,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 32(8), 1067–1076 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V larina, K. V Larin, D. J Deyo, M Motamedi, and D. S Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: A feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Sandrin, S. Manneville, and M. Fink, “Ultrafast two-dimensional ultrasonic speckle velocimetry: A tool in flow imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1155–1157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Oncol. (1)

G. F. Lungu, M. L. Li, X. Xie, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “In vivo imaging and characterization of hypoxia-induced neovascularization and tumor invasion,” Int. J. Oncol. 30(1), 45–54 (2007).

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

C. K. Liao, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, and P. C. Li, “Nanorod-based flow estimation using a high-frame-rate photoacoustic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064006–064009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Laser optoacoustic imaging system for detection of breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (2)

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. H. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Nie, D. Xing, and S. H. Yang, “In vivo detection and imaging of low-density foreign body with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(8), 3429–3437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microvasc. Res. (1)

H. Golster, M. Lindén, S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Red blood cell velocity and volumetric flow assessment by enhanced high-resolution laser Doppler imaging in separate vessels of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 58(1), 62–73 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, T. Kelly, J. W. Kim, L. Yang, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo magnetic enrichment and multiplex photoacoustic detection of circulating tumour cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 855–860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren, S. Vaithilingam, S. Bodapati, Z. Liu, J. Levi, B. R. Smith, T. J. Ma, O. Oralkan, Z. Cheng, X. Y. Chen, H. J. Dai, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and S. S. Gambhir, “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 557–562 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, H. M. Moon, and V. P. Zharov, “Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(10), 688–694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, “Thermoacoustic tomography with correction for acoustic speed variations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(24), 6437–6448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. L. Li, J. T. Oh, X. Y. Xie, G. Ku, W. Wang, C. Li, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous molecular and hypoxia imaging of brain tumors in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. IEEE 96(3), 481–489 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

D. E. Goertz, J. L. Yu, R. S. Kerbel, P. N. Burns, and F. S. Foster, “High-frequency 3-D color-flow imaging of the microcirculation,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(1), 39–51 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. Ephrat, M. Roumeliotis, F. S. Prato, and J. J. L. Carson, “3D photoacoustic imaging of a moving target,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770W–1-9 (2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a). Schematic of the photoacoustic imaging velocimetry system. PDA: parallel data-acquisition. The light-absorbing target moving along velocity vector is illuminated by laser pulses. The velocity vector is located in the image plane of the linear transducer array. The black circle represents an optical absorber. (b) The schematic of transport apparatus (plastic tube) used in experiment 1 and 2. The black rectangle on the left represents the solid tracer (wood block). The black rectangle on the right represents the mark (a piece of black tape). The arrow shows the direction of flow field. (c) The schematic of the taper glass tube used in experiment 3. (d) The configuration schematic of the tee pipe used in experiment 4 and 5. Port 1 was connected with the infusion pump through the standard syringe to get a constant flow. Port 2 was connected with another syringe and used to inject a small amount of Indian ink. Port 3 was connected with the plastic tube and located in the imaging region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstructed photoacoustic images with the wood block located at different position of the FOV. (a) and (b) Reconstructed PA images from the conventional dynamic focusing algorithm with the absorber target located at the edge and in the centre of the imaging area, respectively. (c) and (d) Reconstructed PA images from the improved dynamic focusing algorithm modified with the received weighting factor. (e) Reconstructed profiles at y = 11.5 mm of images (a)-(d). The reconstruction profiles of the wood block from (a)-(d) are shown with the color of black, blue, red and green, respectively. The red line in each panel represents the position of the linear transducer array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PA images of the solid tracer with constant velocity at different times. The movement of the tracer was captured in 2.06 second. The arrow shows the direction of flow field. The red line represents the position of the linear transducer array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PA images of the solid tracer with varying velocity at different times. The movement of the tracer was captured in 1.06 second. The arrow shows the direction of flow field. The red line represents the position of the linear transducer array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PA images of liquid tracer at different times. The dash lines represent positions of the wall of the plastic tube. Arrows show the flow direction. A: The transducer array was placed parallel to the flow direction. The movement of the liquid tracer was captured in 1.06 second. B: The transducer array was placed toward to the flow direction. The movement of the liquid tracer was captured in 1.66 second. The red line represents the position of the linear transducer array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PA images of liquid tracer in a flow with an oblique direction toward the transducer array. The movement of the tracer was captured in 2 second. The red line represents the position of the linear transducer array.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D(θ)=sin(ka2sinθ)ka2sinθ,
Sij=wm=1M[RFm(tτij)×D(θ)],

Metrics