Abstract

We investigated dual wavelength mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers based on heterogeneous cascades. We found that due to gain competition laser action tends to start in higher order lateral modes. The mid-infrared mode with the lower threshold current reduces population inversion for the second laser with the higher threshold current due to stimulated emission. We developed a rate equation model to quantitatively describe mode interactions due to mutual gain depletion.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Rochat, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Long-wavelength (λ~16 µm), room-temperature, single-frequency quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(26), 4271 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Belyanin, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, “Raman Injection and Inversionless Intersubband Lasers” in Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Structures, R. Paiella (McGraw-Hill Companies, 2006), chapter 6.3.5.

2009 (4)

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Rochat, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Long-wavelength (λ~16 µm), room-temperature, single-frequency quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(26), 4271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aellen, T.

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. M.

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Austerer, M.

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Long-wavelength (λ~16 µm), room-temperature, single-frequency quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(26), 4271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belyanin, A.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, V.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bois, Ph.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, Y.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cockburn, J. W.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darvish, S. R.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Long-wavelength (λ~16 µm), room-temperature, single-frequency quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(26), 4271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. Y.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, M.

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Go, R.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Long-wavelength (λ~16 µm), room-temperature, single-frequency quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(26), 4271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hugi, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kocharovsky, V.

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krysa, A. B.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar N. Patel, C.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyakh, A.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, A.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, D. C.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Owschimikow, N.

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, C. K. N.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Revin, D. G.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roch, T.

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, M.

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Long-wavelength (λ~16 µm), room-temperature, single-frequency quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(26), 4271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanbun-Ek, T.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. W.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vineis, C. J.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vinter, B.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

West, K. W.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ–3.1µm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Long-wavelength (λ~16 µm), room-temperature, single-frequency quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(26), 4271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 Watt continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on non-resonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “High power thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with a heterogeneous cascade: two-wavelength operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 572 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 µm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Far-infrared generation by doubly resonant difference frequency mixing in a coupled quantum well two-dimensional electron gas system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 445 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Austerer, C. Pflügl, S. Golka, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, and G. Strasser, “Coherent 5.35 µm surface emission from a GaAs-based distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, M. Geiser, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, and S. Blaser, “Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 533–546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Owschimikow, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, V. Kocharovsky, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Resonant second-order nonlinear optical processes in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Other (1)

A. Belyanin, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, “Raman Injection and Inversionless Intersubband Lasers” in Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Structures, R. Paiella (McGraw-Hill Companies, 2006), chapter 6.3.5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Band diagram for (a) the double phonon resonance and (b) the bound to continuum active region of structure S1 calculated for an applied field of 34KV/cm and 41kV/cm, respectively which are the injection resonance conditions for each active region. The lasing transitions ((a) green-red, (b) green-blue) are shown with wavy arrows. The layer sequence in nm, starting from the injection barrier, for the BTC structure is 4.0/ 2.4/ 0.7/ 6.5/ 0.8/ 6.4/ 0.8/ 5.8/ 2.2/ 4.0/ 1.3/ 3.8/ 1.4/ 3.7/ 1.5/ 3.6/ 1.9/3.6 / 2.5/ 3.6/ 2.5/ 3.5. The layer sequence for one period of a DPR section is 4.0/2.0/ 0.7/ 6.0/ 0.9/ 5.9/ 1.0/ 5.2/ 1.4/ 3.8/ 1.2/ 3.2/ 1.2/ 3.2/ 1.6/ 3.1/ 1.9/ 3.1/2.2/ 3.0/ 2.2/ 2.9. The barriers are underlined. (c) Cross sectional view of the ridge showing schematically the waveguide design. (d) Schematic energy diagram of the BTC active region with states 4, 3, and 2. State 1 is the injector ground state. States 4, 3 and 2 are marked in bold green, red and blue in (b), respectively. Radiation ω1 (green to red) comes from the DPR laser (Fig. 1a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

IR-characterization of a typical device of structure S1, taken at a temperature of 150K. (a) shows the spectra at different current densities. The spectra are shifted vertically for clarity. Light output vs. current density and voltage vs. current density characteristics of the same device can be seen in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EL spectra of structure S1 at different voltages, taken from mesa structures at 78K. The two laser transitions of the two different active regions can be distinguished.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2D far field profile for a typical device from wafer S1 with the DPR laser operating in TM00 and the BTC laser in TM03, taken at a temperature of 78K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Far field profile for a device of structure S2, taken at (a) 80K and (b) 180K. While the 10.2µm DPR laser operates at both temperatures in the TM00 mode, the 8.8µm BTC laser changes from TM02 to TM00 with increasing temperature. The asymmetry of the BTC mode in (a) is attributed to a not perfectly horizontally mounted sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Position dependent population inversion in the BTC active region. Depopulation via stimulated emission of the 10.5 µm photons is strongest in the middle of the ridge, where their density is the highest. (a) is a schematic, while (b) quantifies the effect.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Modal Gain for Different Lateral Modes With and Without 10.5µm Radiation a)

Equations (6)

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dn3(x,y)dt=n4(x,y)τ43+σ1S(x,y)(n4(x,y)n3(x,y))n3(x,y)τ3nonrad.=0,
dn2(x,y)dt=n4(x,y)τ42+n3(x,y)τ32n2(x,y)τ21+σ2S(x,y)(n4(x,y)n2(x,y))=0,
dn1(x,y)dt=n4(x,y)τ41+n3(x,y)τ31+n2(x,y)τ21jinjectq=0,
σ1=2πe2z432ε0nλLp2γ43(EE43)2+(2γ43)2,σ2=2πe2z422ε0nλLp2γ42(EE42)2+(2γ42)2
gTM0a(x,y)=ω8.9μme2z422ε0cnLpΓTM0a(x,y)×12{1G42+|Ω(x,y)|2/G32×[|Ω(x,y)|2(n3(x,y)n4(x,y))G32G43+(n4(x,y)n2(x,y))]}
Gij=γij+i(ΔEij/ωij)

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