Abstract

A novel scheme using single phase modulator for simultaneous time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) signal generation and DPSK data modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Array- Waveguide-Grating and Variable-Bandwidth-Spectrum-Shaper based devices can be used for decoding the signal directly in spectral domain. The effects of fiber dispersion, light pulse width and timing error on the coding performance have been investigated by simulation and verified in experiment. In the experiment, SPE signal with 8-chip, 20GHz/chip optical code patterns has been generated and modulated with 2.5 Gbps DPSK data using single modulator. Transmission of the 2.5 Gbps data over 34km fiber with BER<10−9 has been demonstrated successfully. The proposed scheme has simple configuration and improved flexibility that can significantly improve the data confidentiality for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) and secure optical communication applications.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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 systems,” OFC 2008, San Diego, CA, JThA25, Feb. 2008.
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2009 (2)

S. Thomas, A. Malacarne, F. Fresi, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, and J. Azaña, “Programmable fiber-based picosecond optical pulse shaper using time-domain binary phase-only linear filtering,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 545–547 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (4)

2002 (2)

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, “1.6-b/s/Hz 6.4-Tb/s QPSK-OCDM/WDM (4 OCDM × 40 WDM × 40 Gb/s) transmission experiment using optical hard thresholding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 555–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

K. I. Kitayama, “Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(7), 1309–1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Spectrally Efficient Six-User Coherent OCDMA System Using Reconfigurable Integrated Ring Resonator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1952–1954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Azaña, J.

Banwell, T.

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Spectrally Efficient Six-User Coherent OCDMA System Using Reconfigurable Integrated Ring Resonator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1952–1954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ben Yoo, S. J.

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berger, N. K.

Bogoni, A.

Chujo, W.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, “1.6-b/s/Hz 6.4-Tb/s QPSK-OCDM/WDM (4 OCDM × 40 WDM × 40 Gb/s) transmission experiment using optical hard thresholding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 555–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cincotti, G.

Cong, W.

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Spectrally Efficient Six-User Coherent OCDMA System Using Reconfigurable Integrated Ring Resonator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1952–1954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, T. R.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

Fresi, F.

Hamanaka, T.

Heritage, J. P.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, V. J.

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

Jackel, J.

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Spectrally Efficient Six-User Coherent OCDMA System Using Reconfigurable Integrated Ring Resonator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1952–1954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

A. M. Weiner, Z. Jiang, and D. E. Leaird, “Spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA,” J. Opt. Netw . 6(6), 728–755 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Kitayama, K. I.

K. I. Kitayama, “Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(7), 1309–1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kodate, K.

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Komai, Y.

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, Z. Jiang, and D. E. Leaird, “Spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA,” J. Opt. Netw . 6(6), 728–755 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levit, B.

Li, K.

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malacarne, A.

Matsushima, K.

Menendez, R.

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Spectrally Efficient Six-User Coherent OCDMA System Using Reconfigurable Integrated Ring Resonator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1952–1954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mieno, M.

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of 3-WDM x 10-OCDMA x 10.71-Gb/s asynchronous WDM/DPSK-OCDMA using hybrid E/D without FEC and optical thresholding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 207–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishiki, A.

Panasenko, D.

Petropoulos, P.

Potì, L.

Prucnal, P. R.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Roussev, R. V.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, M. A.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(5), 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saperstein, R. E.

Sargent, E. H.

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shake, T. H.

Shinada, S.

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sotobayashi, H.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, “1.6-b/s/Hz 6.4-Tb/s QPSK-OCDM/WDM (4 OCDM × 40 WDM × 40 Gb/s) transmission experiment using optical hard thresholding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 555–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stock, A.

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teh, P. C.

Thomas, S.

Toliver, P.

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Spectrally Efficient Six-User Coherent OCDMA System Using Reconfigurable Integrated Ring Resonator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1952–1954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

Wang, X.

Weiner, A. M.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, Z. Jiang, and D. E. Leaird, “Spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA,” J. Opt. Netw . 6(6), 728–755 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, T.

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(9), 83–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, “Advances in Spectral Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1351–1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

K. I. Kitayama, “Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(7), 1309–1319 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, “1.6-b/s/Hz 6.4-Tb/s QPSK-OCDM/WDM (4 OCDM × 40 WDM × 40 Gb/s) transmission experiment using optical hard thresholding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 555–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2186–2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, “Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 705–707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, “Spectrally Efficient Six-User Coherent OCDMA System Using Reconfigurable Integrated Ring Resonator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1952–1954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mieno, Y. Komai, N. Wada, S. Shinada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Ultrafast Time-Spread Optical BPSK Code Label Generation and Processing Based on Variable-Bandwidth Spectrum Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 860–862 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

J. Opt. Netw (1)

A. M. Weiner, Z. Jiang, and D. E. Leaird, “Spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA,” J. Opt. Netw . 6(6), 728–755 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

Z. Gao, X. Wang, N. Kataoka, and N. Wada, “Demonstration of time-domain spectral phase encoding/ DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator”, LEOS Summer Topical 2009, TuA3.1, New port, CA, USA, 2009.

S. Anzai, M. Mieno, T. Komai, N. Wada, T. Yoda, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kodate, “Amplitude, phase, and
 bandwidth tunable high-resolution optical spectrum shaper and its application for optical communication
 systems,” OFC 2008, San Diego, CA, JThA25, Feb. 2008.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the proposed scheme (a) SPE and DPSK data modulation; (b) Decoding and DPSK data demodulation

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for proposed time domain SPE/DPSK OCDMA scheme

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Decoded waveform for dispersion of −270.5ps/nm; (b) Decoded waveform for dispersion of −300.5ps/nm; (c) Decoded waveform for dispersion of −340.5ps/nm; (d) Peak to wing ratio versus RDF dispersion and (e) Measured dispersion of the RDF used in the experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak to wing ratio (P/W) and peak intensity versus light pulse width. The inset (i) is the decoded waveform for pulse width of 3ps. The inset (ii) shows the average power contrast ratio (P/C) versus the pulse width.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Input spectrum before RDF (the solid blue line is the spectral response of the cascaded BPFs) and (b) waveform of two adjacent stretched optical pulses

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak to wing ratio (P/W) versus timing error between the code pattern and stretched pulse

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Auto-correlation signal for four optical codes: 10101010, 11101000, 11100100 and 00100010, respectively. (b) Cross-correlation signal for OC1 with the other codes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Encoded waveform and (b) decoded waveform of experimental (solid red line) and simulated results (solid blue line) for codes OC1~OC7. (c) Cross-correlation signal for OC5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Decoded waveform; (b) Demodulated DPSK data; (c) Eye diagram and (d) BER performance for 27-1 PRBS data with different codes

Metrics