Abstract

A new type of confocal microscope is described which makes use of intensity correlations between spatially correlated beams of light. It is shown that this apparatus leads to significantly improved transverse resolution.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  2. M. Minsky, “Memoir on Inventing the Confocal Scanning Microscope,” Scanning,  10128–138 (1988).
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  8. W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W.W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Denk and K. Svoboda, “Photon Upmanship: Why Multiphoton Imaging is More than a Gimmick,” Neuron 18, 351–357 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “A Test of a New Type of Stellar Interferometer on Sirius,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. I. Basic theory: the correlation between photons in coherent beams of radiation,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 242, 300–324 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. II. An experimental test of the theory for partially coherent light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 243, 291–319 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A.f. Abouraddy, K.C. Toussaint, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Ellipsometric Measurements Using Photon Pairs Generated by Parametric Down-Conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1717–1719 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A.f. Abouraddy, K.C. Toussaint, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Entangled-Photon Ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 656–662 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K.C. Toussaint, G. Di Giuseppe, K.J. Bycenski, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Quantum Ellipsometry Using Correlated Photon Beams,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T.B. Pittman, Y.H. Shih, D.V. Strekalov, and A.V. Sergienko, “Optical Imaging by Means of Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52R3429–R3432 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J.D. Franson, “Nonlocal Cancellation of Dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 453126–3132 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A.M. Steinberg, P.G. Kwiat, and R.Y. Chiao, “Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 682421–2424 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Bonato, D.S. Simon, P. Villoresi, and A.V. Sergienko, “Multiparameter Entangled-state Engineering using Adaptive Optics,” Phys. Rev. A 79062304 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D.S. Simon and A.V. Sergienko, “Spatial-dispersion cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053813 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, and R.W. Boyd, “Two-Photon Coincidence Imaging with a Classical Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J.C. Howell, “Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 033601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L.A. Lugiato, “Correlated imaging, quantum and classical,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y.J. Cai and S.Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y.H. Shih, “Two-Photon Imaging with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y.H. Shih, “Can Two-Photon Correlation of Chaotic Light Be Considered as Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. Zhang, Y.H. Zhai, L.A. Wu, and X.H. Chen, “Correlated two-photon imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett.,  30, 2354–2356 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Muthukrishnan, M.O. Scully, and M.S. Zubairy, “Quantum microscopy using photon correlations,” J. Opt. B 6S575–S582 (2004).
  32. R.H. Webb, “Confocal Optical Microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427–471 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J.C. Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2009).
  34. P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  35. P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)
  36. K.W.C. Chan, M.N.O. Sullivan, and R.W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction”, Optics Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Y. Bai and S. Han, Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation, Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043828 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L.-H. Ou and L.-M. Kuang, Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 18331844 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown-Twiss type for classical light, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  41. Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  42. K. W. C. Chan, M. N. OSullivan, and R. W. Boyd, High-Order Thermal Ghost Imaging, Opt. Lett. 34, 33433345 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  43. T.M. Cover and J.A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory (Wiley, 1999).
  44. K.D. Mielenz, “Algorithms for Fresnel Diffraction at Rectangular and Circular Apertures,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol.,  103, 497–508 (1997).

2010 (1)

K.W.C. Chan, M.N.O. Sullivan, and R.W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction”, Optics Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

C. Bonato, D.S. Simon, P. Villoresi, and A.V. Sergienko, “Multiparameter Entangled-state Engineering using Adaptive Optics,” Phys. Rev. A 79062304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.S. Simon and A.V. Sergienko, “Spatial-dispersion cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. OSullivan, and R. W. Boyd, High-Order Thermal Ghost Imaging, Opt. Lett. 34, 33433345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown-Twiss type for classical light, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Bai and S. Han, Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation, Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Ou and L.-M. Kuang, Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 18331844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y.H. Shih, “Can Two-Photon Correlation of Chaotic Light Be Considered as Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, Y.H. Zhai, L.A. Wu, and X.H. Chen, “Correlated two-photon imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett.,  30, 2354–2356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.J. Cai and S.Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y.H. Shih, “Two-Photon Imaging with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

A. Muthukrishnan, M.O. Scully, and M.S. Zubairy, “Quantum microscopy using photon correlations,” J. Opt. B 6S575–S582 (2004).

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J.C. Howell, “Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L.A. Lugiato, “Correlated imaging, quantum and classical,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.C. Toussaint, G. Di Giuseppe, K.J. Bycenski, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Quantum Ellipsometry Using Correlated Photon Beams,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A.f. Abouraddy, K.C. Toussaint, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Entangled-Photon Ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 656–662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, and R.W. Boyd, “Two-Photon Coincidence Imaging with a Classical Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

1997 (3)

P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
[CrossRef]

W. Denk and K. Svoboda, “Photon Upmanship: Why Multiphoton Imaging is More than a Gimmick,” Neuron 18, 351–357 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.D. Mielenz, “Algorithms for Fresnel Diffraction at Rectangular and Circular Apertures,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol.,  103, 497–508 (1997).

1996 (1)

R.H. Webb, “Confocal Optical Microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T.B. Pittman, Y.H. Shih, D.V. Strekalov, and A.V. Sergienko, “Optical Imaging by Means of Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J.D. Franson, “Nonlocal Cancellation of Dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 453126–3132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.M. Steinberg, P.G. Kwiat, and R.Y. Chiao, “Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 682421–2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W.W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Minsky, “Memoir on Inventing the Confocal Scanning Microscope,” Scanning,  10128–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Magde, E. Elson, and W.W. Webb, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System-Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705–708 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. II. An experimental test of the theory for partially coherent light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 243, 291–319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. I. Basic theory: the correlation between photons in coherent beams of radiation,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 242, 300–324 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “A Test of a New Type of Stellar Interferometer on Sirius,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A.f.

Agafonov, I. N.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown-Twiss type for classical light, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L.A. Lugiato, “Correlated imaging, quantum and classical,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai and S. Han, Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation, Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennink, R.S.

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J.C. Howell, “Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, and R.W. Boyd, “Two-Photon Coincidence Imaging with a Classical Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, S.J.

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J.C. Howell, “Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, and R.W. Boyd, “Two-Photon Coincidence Imaging with a Classical Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berardi, V.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y.H. Shih, “Can Two-Photon Correlation of Chaotic Light Be Considered as Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berne, B.J.

B.J. Berne and R.J. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering with Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics, (Dover Publications, 2000). (Reprint of 1976 Wiley edition.)

Bonato, C.

C. Bonato, D.S. Simon, P. Villoresi, and A.V. Sergienko, “Multiparameter Entangled-state Engineering using Adaptive Optics,” Phys. Rev. A 79062304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonora, S.

C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. OSullivan, and R. W. Boyd, High-Order Thermal Ghost Imaging, Opt. Lett. 34, 33433345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.W.

K.W.C. Chan, M.N.O. Sullivan, and R.W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction”, Optics Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J.C. Howell, “Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, and R.W. Boyd, “Two-Photon Coincidence Imaging with a Classical Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L.A. Lugiato, “Correlated imaging, quantum and classical,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. Hanbury

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. II. An experimental test of the theory for partially coherent light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 243, 291–319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. I. Basic theory: the correlation between photons in coherent beams of radiation,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 242, 300–324 (1957).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “A Test of a New Type of Stellar Interferometer on Sirius,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Bycenski, K.J.

K.C. Toussaint, G. Di Giuseppe, K.J. Bycenski, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Quantum Ellipsometry Using Correlated Photon Beams,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.J.

Y.J. Cai and S.Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, D.-Z.

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carcia, P.F.

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. W. C.

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. OSullivan, and R. W. Boyd, High-Order Thermal Ghost Imaging, Opt. Lett. 34, 33433345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.W.C.

K.W.C. Chan, M.N.O. Sullivan, and R.W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction”, Optics Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chekhova, M. V.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown-Twiss type for classical light, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.H.

Chen, X.-H.

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R.Y.

A.M. Steinberg, P.G. Kwiat, and R.Y. Chiao, “Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 682421–2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cover, T.M.

T.M. Cover and J.A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory (Wiley, 1999).

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y.H. Shih, “Two-Photon Imaging with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk and K. Svoboda, “Photon Upmanship: Why Multiphoton Imaging is More than a Gimmick,” Neuron 18, 351–357 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W.W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Giuseppe, G.

K.C. Toussaint, G. Di Giuseppe, K.J. Bycenski, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Quantum Ellipsometry Using Correlated Photon Beams,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dieu, L.

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

Elson, E.

D. Magde, E. Elson, and W.W. Webb, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System-Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705–708 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franson, J.D.

J.D. Franson, “Nonlocal Cancellation of Dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 453126–3132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, R.H.

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L.A. Lugiato, “Correlated imaging, quantum and classical,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

Y. Bai and S. Han, Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation, Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J.C.

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J.C. Howell, “Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G.

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

Iskhakov, T. Sh.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown-Twiss type for classical light, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D.J.

P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Kuang, L.-M.

L.-H. Ou and L.-M. Kuang, Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 18331844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P.G.

A.M. Steinberg, P.G. Kwiat, and R.Y. Chiao, “Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 682421–2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemon, M.F.

P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.-F.

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L. A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugiato, L.A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L.A. Lugiato, “Correlated imaging, quantum and classical,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, K.-H.

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Magatti, D.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magde, D.

D. Magde, E. Elson, and W.W. Webb, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System-Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705–708 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.C.

J.C. Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2009).

Mielenz, K.D.

K.D. Mielenz, “Algorithms for Fresnel Diffraction at Rectangular and Circular Apertures,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol.,  103, 497–508 (1997).

Minaeva, O.

O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
[CrossRef]

Minsky, M.

M. Minsky, “Memoir on Inventing the Confocal Scanning Microscope,” Scanning,  10128–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Minsky, U.S. Patent # 3013467, Microscopy Apparatus (1957).

Muthukrishnan, A.

A. Muthukrishnan, M.O. Scully, and M.S. Zubairy, “Quantum microscopy using photon correlations,” J. Opt. B 6S575–S582 (2004).

OSullivan, M. N.

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. OSullivan, and R. W. Boyd, High-Order Thermal Ghost Imaging, Opt. Lett. 34, 33433345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ou, L.-H.

L.-H. Ou and L.-M. Kuang, Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 18331844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pecora, R.

R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering: Applications of Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (Plenum Press, 1985).

Pecora, R.J.

B.J. Berne and R.J. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering with Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics, (Dover Publications, 2000). (Reprint of 1976 Wiley edition.)

Penin, A. N.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown-Twiss type for classical light, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T.B.

T.B. Pittman, Y.H. Shih, D.V. Strekalov, and A.V. Sergienko, “Optical Imaging by Means of Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reilly, M.H.

P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, G.

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

Saleh, B.E.A.

O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.C. Toussaint, G. Di Giuseppe, K.J. Bycenski, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Quantum Ellipsometry Using Correlated Photon Beams,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A.f. Abouraddy, K.C. Toussaint, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Entangled-Photon Ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 656–662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A.f. Abouraddy, K.C. Toussaint, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Ellipsometric Measurements Using Photon Pairs Generated by Parametric Down-Conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1717–1719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y.H. Shih, “Can Two-Photon Correlation of Chaotic Light Be Considered as Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y.H. Shih, “Two-Photon Imaging with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, K.S.

K.S. Schmitz, An Introduction to Dynamic Light Scattering By Macromolecules (Academic Press, 1990).

Scully, M.O.

A. Muthukrishnan, M.O. Scully, and M.S. Zubairy, “Quantum microscopy using photon correlations,” J. Opt. B 6S575–S582 (2004).

Sergienko, A.V.

D.S. Simon and A.V. Sergienko, “Spatial-dispersion cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, D.S. Simon, P. Villoresi, and A.V. Sergienko, “Multiparameter Entangled-state Engineering using Adaptive Optics,” Phys. Rev. A 79062304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.C. Toussaint, G. Di Giuseppe, K.J. Bycenski, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Quantum Ellipsometry Using Correlated Photon Beams,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A.f. Abouraddy, K.C. Toussaint, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Entangled-Photon Ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 656–662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A.f. Abouraddy, K.C. Toussaint, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Ellipsometric Measurements Using Photon Pairs Generated by Parametric Down-Conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1717–1719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.B. Pittman, Y.H. Shih, D.V. Strekalov, and A.V. Sergienko, “Optical Imaging by Means of Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y.H.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y.H. Shih, “Can Two-Photon Correlation of Chaotic Light Be Considered as Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y.H. Shih, “Two-Photon Imaging with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.B. Pittman, Y.H. Shih, D.V. Strekalov, and A.V. Sergienko, “Optical Imaging by Means of Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, D.S.

O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, D.S. Simon, P. Villoresi, and A.V. Sergienko, “Multiparameter Entangled-state Engineering using Adaptive Optics,” Phys. Rev. A 79062304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.S. Simon and A.V. Sergienko, “Spatial-dispersion cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, A.M.

A.M. Steinberg, P.G. Kwiat, and R.Y. Chiao, “Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 682421–2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.V.

T.B. Pittman, Y.H. Shih, D.V. Strekalov, and A.V. Sergienko, “Optical Imaging by Means of Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W.W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, M.N.O.

K.W.C. Chan, M.N.O. Sullivan, and R.W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction”, Optics Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

W. Denk and K. Svoboda, “Photon Upmanship: Why Multiphoton Imaging is More than a Gimmick,” Neuron 18, 351–357 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M.C.

Thomas, J.A.

T.M. Cover and J.A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory (Wiley, 1999).

Torardi, C.

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

Toussaint, K.C.

Twiss, R.Q.

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. II. An experimental test of the theory for partially coherent light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 243, 291–319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. I. Basic theory: the correlation between photons in coherent beams of radiation,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 242, 300–324 (1957).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “A Test of a New Type of Stellar Interferometer on Sirius,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y.H. Shih, “Two-Photon Imaging with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

C. Bonato, D.S. Simon, P. Villoresi, and A.V. Sergienko, “Multiparameter Entangled-state Engineering using Adaptive Optics,” Phys. Rev. A 79062304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R.H.

R.H. Webb, “Confocal Optical Microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W.W.

W.W. Webb, “Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: Inception, Biophysical Experimentations, and Prospectus,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3969–3983 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W.W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Magde, E. Elson, and W.W. Webb, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System-Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705–708 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.A.

Wu, L.-A.

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, J.

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.H.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, S.-H.

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.Y.

Y.J. Cai and S.Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zubairy, M.S.

A. Muthukrishnan, M.O. Scully, and M.S. Zubairy, “Quantum microscopy using photon correlations,” J. Opt. B 6S575–S582 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

P.F. Carcia, R.H. French, M.H. Reilly, M.F. Lemon, and D.J. Jones, “Optical superlattices-a strategy for designing phase-shift masks for photolithographys at 248 and 193 nm: Application to AIN/CrN”, Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 2371–2372 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D.-Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S.-H. Zhang, L.-F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. Wang, Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nthorder intensity correlation of thermal light, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

A. Muthukrishnan, M.O. Scully, and M.S. Zubairy, “Quantum microscopy using photon correlations,” J. Opt. B 6S575–S582 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

L.-H. Ou and L.-M. Kuang, Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 18331844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

K.D. Mielenz, “Algorithms for Fresnel Diffraction at Rectangular and Circular Apertures,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol.,  103, 497–508 (1997).

Nature (1)

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “A Test of a New Type of Stellar Interferometer on Sirius,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (1)

W. Denk and K. Svoboda, “Photon Upmanship: Why Multiphoton Imaging is More than a Gimmick,” Neuron 18, 351–357 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optics Express (1)

K.W.C. Chan, M.N.O. Sullivan, and R.W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction”, Optics Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (8)

C. Bonato, D.S. Simon, P. Villoresi, and A.V. Sergienko, “Multiparameter Entangled-state Engineering using Adaptive Optics,” Phys. Rev. A 79062304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.S. Simon and A.V. Sergienko, “Spatial-dispersion cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L.A. Lugiato, “Correlated imaging, quantum and classical,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.C. Toussaint, G. Di Giuseppe, K.J. Bycenski, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, and M.C. Teich, “Quantum Ellipsometry Using Correlated Photon Beams,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.B. Pittman, Y.H. Shih, D.V. Strekalov, and A.V. Sergienko, “Optical Imaging by Means of Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.D. Franson, “Nonlocal Cancellation of Dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 453126–3132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown-Twiss type for classical light, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

Y. Bai and S. Han, Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation, Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

Y.J. Cai and S.Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y.H. Shih, “Two-Photon Imaging with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y.H. Shih, “Can Two-Photon Correlation of Chaotic Light Be Considered as Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-Resolution Ghost Image and Ghost Diffraction Experiments with Thermal Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, and R.W. Boyd, “Two-Photon Coincidence Imaging with a Classical Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.S. Bennink, S.J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J.C. Howell, “Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.M. Steinberg, P.G. Kwiat, and R.Y. Chiao, “Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 682421–2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Minaeva, C. Bonato, B.E.A. Saleh, D.S. Simon, and A.V. Sergienko, “Odd- and Even-Order Dispersion Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102100504-1(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A.V. Sergienko, B.E.A. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-Order Aberration Cancellation in Quantum Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Magde, E. Elson, and W.W. Webb, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System-Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705–708 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A (2)

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. I. Basic theory: the correlation between photons in coherent beams of radiation,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 242, 300–324 (1957).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanbury Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light. II. An experimental test of the theory for partially coherent light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 243, 291–319 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

R.H. Webb, “Confocal Optical Microscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

M. Minsky, “Memoir on Inventing the Confocal Scanning Microscope,” Scanning,  10128–138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W.W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. (1)

P.F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R.H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, and L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-Shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, Sept. 14–21, 1–10 (1999)

Other (6)

J.C. Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2009).

M. Minsky, U.S. Patent # 3013467, Microscopy Apparatus (1957).

R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering: Applications of Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (Plenum Press, 1985).

K.S. Schmitz, An Introduction to Dynamic Light Scattering By Macromolecules (Academic Press, 1990).

B.J. Berne and R.J. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering with Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics, (Dover Publications, 2000). (Reprint of 1976 Wiley edition.)

T.M. Cover and J.A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory (Wiley, 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) Schematic diagram for standard confocal microscope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) Two methods for making a confocal microscope without a source pinhole.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) Schematic diagram for correlation confocal microscope with two branches, comprised of two confocal microscopes whose output is combined in a correlated manner.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) Comparison of images produced by correlated (blue solid) and standard uncorrelated (red dashed) confocal microscopes for two square objects (black dotted) separated by a gap. The correlated version shows a substantially improved ability to distinguish objects with small separation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online) Comparison of images produced by correlated (blue solid) and standard uncorrelated (red dashed) confocal microscopes for three square objects (black dotted) separated by gaps.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Color online) Comparison of images produced by correlated (blue solid) and standard uncorrelated (red dashed) confocal microscopes for a more complicated object (black dotted).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(Color online) Comparison of transverse intensity point spread functions for standard correlated (blue solid) and uncorrelated (red dashed) confocal microscopes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Color online) Correlation confocal microscope with a single branch.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(Color online) To view thick samples, the phase modulation plane needs to be moved away from the object plane by distance ζ 2.

Equations (34)

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1z1+1z2=1f
hi(ξ,y)=eik2(y2z2+ξ22z1) p˜ (k(yz2+ξz1)) ,
p˜(q)=2πa2J1(aq)(aq)
hi(y)=hi(0,y)=eiky22z2p˜(kyz2)
h(y)=d2yh1(ξ,y)t(y+y)h2(y,x)x=ξ=0
= d2 y h1 (y) t (y+y) h2 (y) .
CSF(y)=h1(y) h2 (y) ,
PSF(y)=h1(y)h2(y)2.
PSF(y)[p˜(kyz2)]4(J1(kayz2)(kay/z2))4,
PSFwide(y)[p˜(kyz2)]2(J1(kayz2)(kay/z2))2.
eiϕ1(y)=ei(cy·b),eiϕ2(y)=ei(cy·b),
â0=12(â1iâ2).
b̂j=âj p˜2 (kyjz2) tj (yj+y) eiϕj(yj) eikyj22z2 d2 yj .
(12(b̂1ib̂2))20=12{[p˜2(ky1z2)t1(y1+y)eiϕ1(y1)eiky122z2d2y1]2â1†2
[p˜2(ky2z2)t2(y2+y)eiϕ2(y2)eiky222z2d2y2]2â2†2
2iâ1â2 p˜2 (ky1z2) p˜2 (ky2z2) t1 (y1+y) t1 (y2+y)ei[ϕ1(y1)+ϕ2(y2)] eik(y12+y22)2z2 d2 y1 d2 y2 } 0 .
â1=12(â3iâ4)
â2=12(â4iâ3),
A3(y)= d2 y d2 y p˜2 (kyz2) p˜2 (kyz2) t (y+y) t (y+y)
×eik(y2+y2)2z2(ei[ϕ(y)+ϕ(y)]+ei[ϕ(y)+ϕ(y)]2ei[ϕ(y)ϕ(y)]).
A3(y)= d2 y d2 y p˜2 (kyz2) p˜2 (kyz2) t (y+y) t (y+y)eik(y2+y2)2z2
×[cos(ϕ(y)+ϕ(y))cos(ϕ(y)ϕ(y))isin(ϕ(y)ϕ(y))].
Rc(y)=A3(y)2,
PSF(y)=[1cos(2ϕ(y))]p˜4(kyz2)=sin2(ϕ(y))p˜4(kyz2),
h1(ξ=0,y)=eik2z2y2 ei(cb·y) p˜ (kz2(y+ζ2kb)) ,
h1(ξ=0,y)=eik2z2y2 ei(cb·y) p˜ (kz2y) ,
PSFstandard(δz)=sinc4 (κδz) ,
A3(y,δz1,δ2)= d2 y d2 y t (y+y) t (y+y) eik(y2+y2)2z2
×E(4κδza,ka2z2y)E(+4κδza,ka2z2y)
×E(4κδzb,ka2z2y)E(+4κδzb,ka2z2y)
×[cos(ϕ(y)+ϕ(y))cos(ϕ(y)ϕ(y))isin(ϕ(y)ϕ(y))].
E(u,v)[L(u,v)+iM(u,v)]=201J0(νρ)ei2uρ2ρdρ,
PSFaxial(δza,δzb)=E(4κδza,0)E(4κδza,0)E(4κδzb,0)E(4κδzb,0)2
=sinc4(κδza)sinc4(κδzb).

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