Abstract

We present a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) for use in endoscopy to reduce speckle contrast, increase signal collection and depth of field. The DCFC is made by fusing and tapering two all silica double-clad fiber (DCF) and allows achromatic transmission of >95% of core illumination (1265nm – 1325nm) as well as collection of >42% of inner cladding diffuse light. Its potential for endoscopy is demonstrated in a spectrally encoded imaging setup which shows speckle reduction by a factor 5, increased signal collection by a factor 9 and enhanced depth of field by 1.8 times. Separation by the DCFC of single- and multi-mode signals allows combining low-speckle reflectance images (25.5 fps) with interferometrically measured depth profiles (post-processed) for of small three-dimensional (3D) features through an all-fiber low loss instrument.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

L. Guittet, G. Launoy, F. Mohammed, and D. A. Lieberman, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 362(1), 84–85, author reply 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. Thiberville, M. Salaun, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, ““Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways,” in Proc,” J. Am.Thorac. Soc. 6(5), 444–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Merman, A. Abramov, and D. Yelin, “Theoretical analysis of spectrally encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24045–24059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Lee and J. Y. Lee, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy based on spectral encoding,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1955–1958 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

L. Fu and M. Gu, “Double-clad photonic crystal fiber coupler for compact nonlinear optical microscopy imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1471–1473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, “A full-color scanning fiber endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 6083, 9–16 (2006).

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Suter, J. Tschirren, J. Reinhardt, M. Sonka, E. Hoffman, W. Higgins, and G. McLennan, “Evaluation of the human airway with multi-detector x-ray-computed tomography and optical imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 25(4), 837–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

M. A. Eloubeidi and D. Provenzale, “Does this patient have Barrett’s esophagus? The utility of predicting Barrett’s esophagus at the index endoscopy,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 94(4), 937–943 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Silicon-micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7(1), 38–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Abramov, A.

Aziz, D.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

D. K. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2760–2762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 412–414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bourg-Heckly, G.

L. Thiberville, M. Salaun, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, ““Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways,” in Proc,” J. Am.Thorac. Soc. 6(5), 444–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlini, A. R.

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

de Boer, J.

De Montigny, E.

M. Struppler, E. De Montigny, D. Morneau, and C. Boudoux, “Spectrally encoded fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Depeursinge, C.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dickensheets, D. L.

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Silicon-micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7(1), 38–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dominique, S.

L. Thiberville, M. Salaun, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, ““Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways,” in Proc,” J. Am.Thorac. Soc. 6(5), 444–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eloubeidi, M. A.

M. A. Eloubeidi and D. Provenzale, “Does this patient have Barrett’s esophagus? The utility of predicting Barrett’s esophagus at the index endoscopy,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 94(4), 937–943 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, L.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Gan, X.

Gmitro, A. F.

Gu, M.

Guittet, L.

L. Guittet, G. Launoy, F. Mohammed, and D. A. Lieberman, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 362(1), 84–85, author reply 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, W.

M. Suter, J. Tschirren, J. Reinhardt, M. Sonka, E. Hoffman, W. Higgins, and G. McLennan, “Evaluation of the human airway with multi-detector x-ray-computed tomography and optical imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 25(4), 837–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E.

M. Suter, J. Tschirren, J. Reinhardt, M. Sonka, E. Hoffman, W. Higgins, and G. McLennan, “Evaluation of the human airway with multi-detector x-ray-computed tomography and optical imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 25(4), 837–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Iftimia, N. V.

Johnston, R. S.

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, “A full-color scanning fiber endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 6083, 9–16 (2006).

Jung, Y.

Kang, D. K.

Karasawa, S.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-T.

Kino, G. S.

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Silicon-micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7(1), 38–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lachkar, S.

L. Thiberville, M. Salaun, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, ““Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways,” in Proc,” J. Am.Thorac. Soc. 6(5), 444–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lang, F.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Launoy, G.

L. Guittet, G. Launoy, F. Mohammed, and D. A. Lieberman, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 362(1), 84–85, author reply 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, E. S.

E. S. Lee and J. Y. Lee, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy based on spectral encoding,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1955–1958 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

E. S. Lee and J. Y. Lee, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy based on spectral encoding,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1955–1958 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, D. A.

L. Guittet, G. Launoy, F. Mohammed, and D. A. Lieberman, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 362(1), 84–85, author reply 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, S. N.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McLennan, G.

M. Suter, J. Tschirren, J. Reinhardt, M. Sonka, E. Hoffman, W. Higgins, and G. McLennan, “Evaluation of the human airway with multi-detector x-ray-computed tomography and optical imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 25(4), 837–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melville, C. D.

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, “A full-color scanning fiber endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 6083, 9–16 (2006).

Merman, M.

Mohammed, F.

L. Guittet, G. Launoy, F. Mohammed, and D. A. Lieberman, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 362(1), 84–85, author reply 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno-Swirc, S.

L. Thiberville, M. Salaun, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, ““Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways,” in Proc,” J. Am.Thorac. Soc. 6(5), 444–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morneau, D.

M. Struppler, E. De Montigny, D. Morneau, and C. Boudoux, “Spectrally encoded fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Motz, J. T.

Na, J.

Oh, W. Y.

Pitris, C.

Provenzale, D.

M. A. Eloubeidi and D. Provenzale, “Does this patient have Barrett’s esophagus? The utility of predicting Barrett’s esophagus at the index endoscopy,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 94(4), 937–943 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhall, P. G.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, J.

M. Suter, J. Tschirren, J. Reinhardt, M. Sonka, E. Hoffman, W. Higgins, and G. McLennan, “Evaluation of the human airway with multi-detector x-ray-computed tomography and optical imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 25(4), 837–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

Salaun, M.

L. Thiberville, M. Salaun, S. Lachkar, S. Dominique, S. Moreno-Swirc, C. Vever-Bizet, and G. Bourg-Heckly, ““Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy of the human airways,” in Proc,” J. Am.Thorac. Soc. 6(5), 444–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seibel, E. J.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, “A full-color scanning fiber endoscope,” Proc. SPIE 6083, 9–16 (2006).

Shishkov, M.

Shiskov, M.

Sonka, M.

M. Suter, J. Tschirren, J. Reinhardt, M. Sonka, E. Hoffman, W. Higgins, and G. McLennan, “Evaluation of the human airway with multi-detector x-ray-computed tomography and optical imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 25(4), 837–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Struppler, M.

M. Struppler, E. De Montigny, D. Morneau, and C. Boudoux, “Spectrally encoded fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Suter, M.

M. Suter, J. Tschirren, J. Reinhardt, M. Sonka, E. Hoffman, W. Higgins, and G. McLennan, “Evaluation of the human airway with multi-detector x-ray-computed tomography and optical imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 25(4), 837–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

D. K. Kang, D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectrally-encoded color imaging,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15239–15247 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2432–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2760–2762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A GRISM-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(2), 120–124 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3918 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DCFC characterization. (a) DCFC schematics. Red arrow and illumination cone represent the SM signal. Gray arrow and illumination cones represent the MM signal. The SM and MM injections are represented by splices with SM or MM fibers, respectively. (b) Spectral response of the single-mode signal transmission. (c) Spectral response of the multi-mode signal transmission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DCF SEE Imaging Setup. The polygon-based wavelength-swept laser is an external fiber cavity semiconductor optical amplifier based laser which delivers near infrared (NIR) light to the DCFC through a fusion splice (10% of the light is used for triggering purposes and 1% for interferometric detection, tapped from achromatic fiber couplers). The DCFC transmits light in its core for illumination of the sample by the imaging arm which consists of a collimating lens, a galvanometer mounted mirror (slow scan axis – Galvo), a transmission grating (fast scan axis) and an objective lens. Coherently backscattered light is collected by the core of the DCFC and sent to a dual-balanced InGaAs photo-detector through a circulator (C) and a 50:50 achromatic (1250-1350nm) fiber based coupler. Diffuse backscattered light is collected by the inner cladding and sent via the second branch of the DCFC to an InGaAs photo-detector. A rapid digitizer simultaneously acquires single- and multi-mode signals for image processing. The galvanometer is controlled by a separate A/D board (not shown). PC – polarization controllers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D image processing from superposition of multi-mode (MM) and single-mode (SM) data. MM data directly provide the intensity profile of the sample while the SM data is Fourier transformed to extract the sample’s height profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrally encoded image of a plastic figurine. (a) SM path reflectance image. (b) MM path reflectance image. (c) Color encoded 3D reconstruction obtained from the SM path interferogram scaled with the MM reflectance map. (d) Picture of the figurine.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Still frames extracted from a video sequence (shown online) of a wasp’s head obtained from a sequence of 99 detected MM reflectance signals and SM interferogram signals. (a) MM reflectance signal. (b) MM reflectance signal color encoded with the height obtained from the single mode interferograms (Media 1).

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