Abstract

We present an idea based on Poincaré sphere and demonstrate the creation of a new type of vector fields, which have hybrid states of polarization. Such a type of hybridly polarized vector fields have completely different property from the reported scalar and vector fields. The novel vector fields are anticipated to result in new effects, phenomena, and applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1–57 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. L. Wang, J. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3549–3551 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 7, 77–87 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Zhan, and J. Leger, “Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 10, 324–331 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  6. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. C. Sun, and C. K. Liu, “Ultrasmall focusing spot with a long depth of focus based on polarization and phase modulation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 99–101 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Sharper focal spot formed by higher-order radially polarized laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1793–1798 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing Radially Polarized Light by a Concentrically Corrugated Silver Film without a Hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103902 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of Nanofocusing by the use of Plasmonic Lens Illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Realization of an evanescent Bessel beam via surface plasmon interference excited by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 34, 722–724 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Watanabe, G. Terakado, and H. Kano, “Localized surface plasmon microscope with an illumination system employing a radially polarized zeroth-order Bessel beam,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1180–1182 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1870–1872 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. T. Tang, E. Y. S. Yew, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Polarization conversion in confocal microscopy with radially polarized illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2147–2149 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Jia, H. Kang, and J. Li, “1 and M. Gu, “Use of radially polarized beams in three-dimensional photonic crystal fabrication with the two-photon polymerization method,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1918–1920 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12, 3377–3382 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Q. Qin, X. L. Wang, D. Jia, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. P. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles,” Opt. Express 17, 8407–8416 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 265, 411–417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Bokor, and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun. 279, 229–234 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. L. Wang, J. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3421–3425 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Rashid, O. M. Maragò, and P. H. Jones, “Focusing of high order cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 065204 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of a conical Brewster prism,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3063–3065 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2151–2153 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Kawauchi, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of radially polarized Ti:sapphire laser beam using a c-cut crystal,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1984–1986 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3272–3274 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Fridman, G. Machavariani, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Fiber lasers generating radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Radially and azimuthally polarized beams generated by space-variant dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 285–287 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Q. Zhan, and J. R. Leger, “Interferometric measurement of Berry’s phase in space-variant polarization manipulations,” Opt. Commun. 213, 241–245 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. A. A. Neil, F. Massoumian, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Method for the generation of arbitrary complex vector wave fronts,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1929–1931 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The Poynting vector in Laguerre-Gaussian beams and the interpretation of their angular momentum density,” Opt. Commun. 184, 67–71 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. F. Li, “Physical evidence for a new symmetry axis of electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053819 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  37. M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, “Geometrical aspects in optical wave-packet dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74, 066610 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  38. K. Yu. Bliokh, and Yu. P. Bliokh, “Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75, 066609 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288–290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing Radially Polarized Light by a Concentrically Corrugated Silver Film without a Hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of Nanofocusing by the use of Plasmonic Lens Illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rashid, O. M. Maragò, and P. H. Jones, “Focusing of high order cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Li, “Physical evidence for a new symmetry axis of electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Realization of an evanescent Bessel beam via surface plasmon interference excited by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 34, 722–724 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Watanabe, G. Terakado, and H. Kano, “Localized surface plasmon microscope with an illumination system employing a radially polarized zeroth-order Bessel beam,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1180–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Qin, X. L. Wang, D. Jia, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. P. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles,” Opt. Express 17, 8407–8416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1870–1872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jia, H. Kang, and J. Li, “1 and M. Gu, “Use of radially polarized beams in three-dimensional photonic crystal fabrication with the two-photon polymerization method,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1918–1920 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Tang, E. Y. S. Yew, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Polarization conversion in confocal microscopy with radially polarized illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2147–2149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Kawauchi, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of radially polarized Ti:sapphire laser beam using a c-cut crystal,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1984–1986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fridman, G. Machavariani, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Fiber lasers generating radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun. 279, 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yu. Bliokh, and Yu. P. Bliokh, “Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75, 066609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Sharper focal spot formed by higher-order radially polarized laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1793–1798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3549–3551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2151–2153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, “Geometrical aspects in optical wave-packet dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74, 066610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 265, 411–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

C. C. Sun, and C. K. Liu, “Ultrasmall focusing spot with a long depth of focus based on polarization and phase modulation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 99–101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2000

K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 7, 77–87 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The Poynting vector in Laguerre-Gaussian beams and the interpretation of their angular momentum density,” Opt. Commun. 184, 67–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986

Ahmed, M. A.

Allen, L.

L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The Poynting vector in Laguerre-Gaussian beams and the interpretation of their angular momentum density,” Opt. Commun. 184, 67–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amato-Grill, J.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antosiewicz, T. J.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing Radially Polarized Light by a Concentrically Corrugated Silver Film without a Hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biener, G.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bliokh, K. Yu.

K. Yu. Bliokh, and Yu. P. Bliokh, “Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75, 066609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bliokh, Yu. P.

K. Yu. Bliokh, and Yu. P. Bliokh, “Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75, 066609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, N.

N. Bokor, and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun. 279, 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bomzon, Z.

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T. G.

Chen, J.

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Qin, X. L. Wang, D. Jia, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. P. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles,” Opt. Express 17, 8407–8416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chong, C. T.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Davidson, N.

M. Fridman, G. Machavariani, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Fiber lasers generating radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun. 279, 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3549–3551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, J. P.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Fan, Y. X.

J. Q. Qin, X. L. Wang, D. Jia, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. P. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles,” Opt. Express 17, 8407–8416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fridman, M.

M. Fridman, G. Machavariani, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Fiber lasers generating radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

M. Fridman, G. Machavariani, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Fiber lasers generating radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Furhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graf, T.

Grier, D. G.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C. S.

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

Huang, Z.

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1870–1872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackel, S.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

Jia, D.

Jones, P. H.

M. Rashid, O. M. Maragò, and P. H. Jones, “Focusing of high order cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

Kang, H.

Kano, H.

Kawauchi, H.

Kleiner, V.

Kozawa, Y.

Leger, J.

Leger, J. R.

Q. Zhan, and J. R. Leger, “Interferometric measurement of Berry’s phase in space-variant polarization manipulations,” Opt. Commun. 213, 241–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of Nanofocusing by the use of Plasmonic Lens Illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of Nanofocusing by the use of Plasmonic Lens Illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. F.

C. F. Li, “Physical evidence for a new symmetry axis of electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lin, J.

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. K.

Lu, F.

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1870–1872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lumer, Y.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Machavariani, G.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fridman, G. Machavariani, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Fiber lasers generating radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maragò, O. M.

M. Rashid, O. M. Maragò, and P. H. Jones, “Focusing of high order cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massoumian, F.

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meir, A.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moshe, I.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, S.

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, “Geometrical aspects in optical wave-packet dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74, 066610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagaosa, N.

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, “Geometrical aspects in optical wave-packet dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74, 066610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

Ni, W. J.

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onoda, M.

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, “Geometrical aspects in optical wave-packet dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74, 066610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The Poynting vector in Laguerre-Gaussian beams and the interpretation of their angular momentum density,” Opt. Commun. 184, 67–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pniewski, J.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing Radially Polarized Light by a Concentrically Corrugated Silver Film without a Hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J. Q.

J. Q. Qin, X. L. Wang, D. Jia, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. P. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles,” Opt. Express 17, 8407–8416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rashid, M.

M. Rashid, O. M. Maragò, and P. H. Jones, “Focusing of high order cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roichman, Y.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, S.

Sheppard, C.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

W. T. Tang, E. Y. S. Yew, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Polarization conversion in confocal microscopy with radially polarized illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2147–2149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. P.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C. C.

Szoplik, T.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing Radially Polarized Light by a Concentrically Corrugated Silver Film without a Hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, W. T.

Terakado, G.

Vogel, M. M.

Voss, A.

Wang, H.

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, X. L.

Watanabe, K.

Wilson, T.

Wróbel, P.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing Radially Polarized Light by a Concentrically Corrugated Silver Film without a Hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of Nanofocusing by the use of Plasmonic Lens Illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yew, E. Y. S.

Yonezawa, K.

Youngworth, K. S.

Zhan, Q.

Zheng, W.

F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1870–1872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Lin, F. Lu, H. Wang, W. Zheng, C. J. R. Sheppard, and Z. Huang, “Improved contrast radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using annular aperture detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fridman, G. Machavariani, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Fiber lasers generating radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Rashid, O. M. Maragò, and P. H. Jones, “Focusing of high order cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 065204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

N. J. Phys.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Furhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of Nanofocusing by the use of Plasmonic Lens Illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

W. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 265, 411–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun. 279, 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The Poynting vector in Laguerre-Gaussian beams and the interpretation of their angular momentum density,” Opt. Commun. 184, 67–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, and J. R. Leger, “Interferometric measurement of Berry’s phase in space-variant polarization manipulations,” Opt. Commun. 213, 241–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of a conical Brewster prism,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3063–3065 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2151–2153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. A. Neil, F. Massoumian, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Method for the generation of arbitrary complex vector wave fronts,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1929–1931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, and C. K. Liu, “Ultrasmall focusing spot with a long depth of focus based on polarization and phase modulation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 99–101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Radially and azimuthally polarized beams generated by space-variant dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 285–287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288–290 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lu, W. Zheng, and Z. Huang, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using tightly focused radially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1870–1872 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jia, H. Kang, and J. Li, “1 and M. Gu, “Use of radially polarized beams in three-dimensional photonic crystal fabrication with the two-photon polymerization method,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1918–1920 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Tang, E. Y. S. Yew, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Polarization conversion in confocal microscopy with radially polarized illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2147–2149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3549–3551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kawauchi, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of radially polarized Ti:sapphire laser beam using a c-cut crystal,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1984–1986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Realization of an evanescent Bessel beam via surface plasmon interference excited by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 34, 722–724 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Watanabe, G. Terakado, and H. Kano, “Localized surface plasmon microscope with an illumination system employing a radially polarized zeroth-order Bessel beam,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1180–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

C. F. Li, “Physical evidence for a new symmetry axis of electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, “Geometrical aspects in optical wave-packet dynamics,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74, 066610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yu. Bliokh, and Yu. P. Bliokh, “Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75, 066609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, “Optical forces arising from phase gradients,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing Radially Polarized Light by a Concentrically Corrugated Silver Film without a Hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 103902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Poincaré sphere ∑ and (b) different SoPs on Poincaré sphere ∑.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distribution of SoPs of the created vector field for ϕ = −π/4 and δ = φ (a) and the well-known radially polarized field (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity patterns for the vector fields without and with a polarizer. First and second rows are the hybridly polarized vector field with ϕ = −π/4 and δ = φ and the radially polarized field, respectively. Third row shows the directions of the polarizer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Created four different vector fields with the directions of the λ/2 waveplate in the +1 order path along 0, π/4, π/2 and 3π/4, the SoPs (the first row) and the intensity patterns behind the horizontal polarizer (the second row).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Hybridly polarized vector fields created by the pair of base vectors {êx, êy} when m = 1, for φ0 = 0, π/4, π/2, and 3p/4.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Hybridly polarized vector fields by the pair of base vectors {êx, êy} with φ0 = 0 and m=2 (the upper row). For comparison, the local linearly polarized vector field with φ0 = 0 and m = 2, by the method in Ref. 3 (the bottom row).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ŝ (2ϕ,2α) =sin(α+π/4) exp (jϕ) êr+cos(α+π/4) exp (jϕ)êl
=12[sin(α+π/4)exp(jϕ)+cos(α+π/4)exp(jϕ)]êx+
j 12[sin(α+π/4)exp(jϕ)cos(α+π/4)exp(jϕ)]êy
P̂(ρ,φ)=12[exp(jδ)êr+exp(jδ)êl]
=cosδêx+sinδêy
P̂(ρ,φ)=12(cosϕêx+sinϕêy)exp(jδ)+12(sinϕêx+cosϕêy)exp(jδ)
= cos(δ+π/4)exp[(j(ϕ+π/4)]êr+sin(δ+π/4)exp[j(ϕ+π/4)]êl

Metrics