Abstract

In the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) interference lithography, the scattering effect caused by the rough surface of silver film deteriorates the quality of lithography patterns. Research shows that under this condition the light field in the photoresist is not the results of SPPs interference but comes from the SPPs assisted imaging in which the scattered light propagates from the upper surface of the silver film to the photoresist. The near-field optical transfer function (NOTF) is used to study this process and a method of evaluating the imaging quality is presented. The validity of NOTF is verified by both SPPs assisted interference imaging experiments and simulations by the FDTD. It is also shown that the NOTF method is not only a convenient approach to describe the nano-scale information transmission in the near-field but also a good method to optimize experimental parameters.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

J.-Q. Wang, H.-M. Liang, S. Shi, and J.-L. Du, “Theoretical analysis of interference nanolithography of surface plasmon polaritons without match layer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(8), 084208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

X. Guo, J. Du, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Guo, “Surface-plasmon polariton interference nanolithography based on end-fire coupling,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1037–1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Experimental studies of far-field superlens for sub-diffractional optical imaging,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6947–6954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the far-field superlens: from UV to visible,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7095–7102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Z. Liu, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Development of optical hyperlens for imaging below the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15886–15891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, J. Du, X. Guo, X. Luo, and C. Du, “High-efficiency transmission of nanoscale information by surface plasmon polaritons from near field to far field,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (5)

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Podolskiy, N. A. Kuhta, and G. W. Milton, “Optimizing the superlens: manipulating geometry to enhance the resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2127–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, “Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4403–4405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(4), 045418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. B. Pendry and S. A. Ramakrishna, “Near-field lenses in two dimensions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(36), 8463–8479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ambati, M.

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(4), 045418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2127–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, “Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4403–4405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, D.

G. Qiu and D. Cai, “Introduction to SPPs,” Physics Bimonthly 28(2), 472–494 (2006).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, C.

X. Guo, J. Du, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Guo, “Surface-plasmon polariton interference nanolithography based on end-fire coupling,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1037–1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, J. Du, X. Guo, X. Luo, and C. Du, “High-efficiency transmission of nanoscale information by surface plasmon polaritons from near field to far field,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.-L.

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

X. Guo, J. Du, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Guo, “Surface-plasmon polariton interference nanolithography based on end-fire coupling,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1037–1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, J. Du, X. Guo, X. Luo, and C. Du, “High-efficiency transmission of nanoscale information by surface plasmon polaritons from near field to far field,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, J. Du, Y. Guo, and J. Yao, “Large-area surface-plasmon polariton interference lithography,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2613–2615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, J.-L.

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Wang, H.-M. Liang, S. Shi, and J.-L. Du, “Theoretical analysis of interference nanolithography of surface plasmon polaritons without match layer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(8), 084208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durant, S.

Fang, L.

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, X. Guo, X. Luo, and C. Du, “High-efficiency transmission of nanoscale information by surface plasmon polaritons from near field to far field,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, J. Du, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Guo, “Surface-plasmon polariton interference nanolithography based on end-fire coupling,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1037–1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, J. Du, Y. Guo, and J. Yao, “Large-area surface-plasmon polariton interference lithography,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2613–2615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.-W.

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

X. Guo, J. Du, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Guo, “Surface-plasmon polariton interference nanolithography based on end-fire coupling,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1037–1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, J. Du, Y. Guo, and J. Yao, “Large-area surface-plasmon polariton interference lithography,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2613–2615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.-K.

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishihara, T.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(4), 045418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhta, N. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, N. A. Kuhta, and G. W. Milton, “Optimizing the superlens: manipulating geometry to enhance the resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Experimental studies of far-field superlens for sub-diffractional optical imaging,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6947–6954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the far-field superlens: from UV to visible,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7095–7102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Z. Liu, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Development of optical hyperlens for imaging below the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15886–15891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.-M.

J.-Q. Wang, H.-M. Liang, S. Shi, and J.-L. Du, “Theoretical analysis of interference nanolithography of surface plasmon polaritons without match layer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(8), 084208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, X. Guo, X. Luo, and C. Du, “High-efficiency transmission of nanoscale information by surface plasmon polaritons from near field to far field,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, J. Du, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Guo, “Surface-plasmon polariton interference nanolithography based on end-fire coupling,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1037–1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.-G.

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(4), 045418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melville, D. O. S.

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2127–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, “Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4403–4405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milton, G. W.

V. A. Podolskiy, N. A. Kuhta, and G. W. Milton, “Optimizing the superlens: manipulating geometry to enhance the resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niu, X.-Y.

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry and S. A. Ramakrishna, “Near-field lenses in two dimensions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(36), 8463–8479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, N. A. Kuhta, and G. W. Milton, “Optimizing the superlens: manipulating geometry to enhance the resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, G.

G. Qiu and D. Cai, “Introduction to SPPs,” Physics Bimonthly 28(2), 472–494 (2006).

Ramakrishna, S. A.

J. B. Pendry and S. A. Ramakrishna, “Near-field lenses in two dimensions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(36), 8463–8479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

J.-Q. Wang, H.-M. Liang, S. Shi, and J.-L. Du, “Theoretical analysis of interference nanolithography of surface plasmon polaritons without match layer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(8), 084208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. M.

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Experimental studies of far-field superlens for sub-diffractional optical imaging,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6947–6954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the far-field superlens: from UV to visible,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7095–7102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Z. Liu, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Development of optical hyperlens for imaging below the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15886–15891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Wang, H.-M. Liang, S. Shi, and J.-L. Du, “Theoretical analysis of interference nanolithography of surface plasmon polaritons without match layer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(8), 084208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, “Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4403–4405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

Yao, J.

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Experimental studies of far-field superlens for sub-diffractional optical imaging,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6947–6954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the far-field superlens: from UV to visible,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7095–7102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Z. Liu, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Development of optical hyperlens for imaging below the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15886–15891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Durant, Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, and X. Zhang, “Theory of the transmission properties of an optical far-field superlens for imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(11), 2383–2392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, X. Guo, X. Luo, and C. Du, “High-efficiency transmission of nanoscale information by surface plasmon polaritons from near field to far field,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-Y.

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy, N. A. Kuhta, and G. W. Milton, “Optimizing the superlens: manipulating geometry to enhance the resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. O. S. Melville, R. J. Blaikie, and C. R. Wolf, “Submicron imaging with a planar silver lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(22), 4403–4405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

L. Fang, J.-L. Du, X.-W. Guo, J.-Q. Wang, Z.-Y. Zhang, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling,” Chin. Phys. B 17(7), 2499–2503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (2)

J.-Q. Wang, H.-M. Liang, S. Shi, and J.-L. Du, “Theoretical analysis of interference nanolithography of surface plasmon polaritons without match layer,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(8), 084208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Zhang, J.-L. Du, Y.-K. Guo, X.-Y. Niu, M. Li, X.-G. Luo, and C.-L. Du, “Near-field optical transfer function for far-field super-resolution Imaging,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 014211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Zhang, J. Du, X. Guo, X. Luo, and C. Du, “High-efficiency transmission of nanoscale information by surface plasmon polaritons from near field to far field,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. B. Pendry and S. A. Ramakrishna, “Near-field lenses in two dimensions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(36), 8463–8479 (2002).
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Microelectron. Eng. (1)

X. Guo, J. Du, X. Luo, C. Du, and Y. Guo, “Surface-plasmon polariton interference nanolithography based on end-fire coupling,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1037–1040 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

H. Lee, Y. Xiong, N. Fang, W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Realization of optical superlens imaging below the diffraction limit,” N. J. Phys. 7(1), 255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(4), 045418 (2004).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physics Bimonthly (1)

G. Qiu and D. Cai, “Introduction to SPPs,” Physics Bimonthly 28(2), 472–494 (2006).

Science (3)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fouries Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of imaging interference patterns with silver superlens. (a) Intensity distribution of light field when the surface of silver film is smooth. (b) and (c) Intensity distribution of light field when the surface is rough. (d) Intensity distribution of light field calculated with Eq. (2) and NOTF. (e) Fourier spectrum of the scattered light field at the upper surface of silver film, when the incident angle is 60°, wavelength of incident light is 441nm and n1 = 1.5.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transfer functions of silver film in different conditions. (a) The curves of NOTFAg with different thickness and n1 = n3 = 1.5. (b) The curves of NOTFAg with different n1, d = 40nm and n3 = 1.5. (c) The curves of NOTFAg with different n3, d = 40nm and n1 = 1.5. (d) The curves of NOTFAg with different z2 (fixing z1 = 5nm) in condition of n1 = n3 = 1.5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intensity of the maximum peak of NOTFAg varying with different medium 1 and 3, color bar denotes the enhancement of intensity. (b) Imaging quality with silver film varying with different medium 1 and 3, color bar denotes the total energy efficiency at the image surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The incident wavelength is 441.6nm and the incident angle is 60°. (a) The refractive indexes of dielectrics above and blow the silver film are n1 = 1.47 and n3 = 1.51, respectively. (b) n1 = 1.61 and n3 = 1.63. (c) n1 and n3 are both 2.55. (d) n1 = 2.9 and n3 = 2.9.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the interference imaging in the photoresist with the incident wavelength 441.6nm and the incident angle 60°. (a) The refractive index of prism is 1.47 and the refractive index of diluted photoresist is 1.51. (b) The refractive index of prism is 1.61 and the refractive index of photoresist is 1.63.

Equations (10)

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Ho(r)=H˜o(k)exp[i(kr)]dk.
H˜o(k)=F(C(cos4n1πsinθλx+1)random(x)).
kix2+kiz2=εiω2/c2.
T=4ε2ε3k1zk2zexp(ik2zd)(ε2k1z+ε1k2z)(ε3k2z+ε2k3z)+(ε2k1zε1k2z)(ε3k2zε2k3z)exp(2ik2zd),
(ε2kz1+ε1k2z)(ε3k2z+ε2k3z)+(ε2k1zε1k2z)(ε3k2zε2k3z)exp(2ik2zd)=0.
H˜i=H˜o(kx)exp(iz1k12kx2)Texp(iz2k32kx2),
Hi(r)=H˜i(k)exp[i(kr)]dk.
NOTFAg=H˜iH˜o=exp(iz1k12kx2)Texp(iz2k32kx2).
Y±=k2zε2+12[(k1zε1+k3zε3)coth(k2zd)±(k1zε1+k3zε3)2coth2(k2zd)4k1zε1k3zε3].
η=allwavevectors|NOTFAg|2dkx.

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