Abstract

A compact and versatile source of coherent surface-plasmon polaritions (SPPs) is demonstrated by end-coupling a laser diode operating at 1.46 μm to a plasmonic waveguide integrated on the same microchip. With an optimized overlap between the spatial-modes of the laser and a planar-stripe waveguide, a high coupling efficiency of ~36% is achieved, that computations show could approach ~60% with smaller, readily achievable gaps between laser and waveguide. This integrated and electrically-activated source, with an available SPP power limited only by the laser diode, appears ideally suited for directly driving plasmonic circuitry or surface-enhanced sensors.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  25. N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19447–19461 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Passinger, A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, C. Reinhardt, A. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Novel efficient design of Y-splitter for surface plasmon polariton applications,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14369–14379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19447–19461 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, “Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, ““The new ‘p-n junction’: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M. E.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, A. R.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, ““The new ‘p-n junction’: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, A.

A. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, R.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, A. T. R.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brunets, I.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bussmann, K.

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Charbonneau, R.

A. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Cintra, S.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, L.

Dionne, J. A.

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, ““The new ‘p-n junction’: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbsen, T. W.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edamura, T.

Fan, J.

Fice, M. J.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, R. A.

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E. J.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, P. D.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

Karouta, F.

Kelf, T. A.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.-S.

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, R.

Koller, D. M.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

A. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

List, E. J. W.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, J. P.

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S.

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, ““The new ‘p-n junction’: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marell, M.

Martín-Moreno, L.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiussi, G.

A. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C.-Z.

Nötzel, R.

O’Reilly, E. P.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

Ohrt, C.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Passinger, S.

Pflügl, C.

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, “Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, ““The new ‘p-n junction’: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reil, F.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, C.

Rodrigo, S. G.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, A. E.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scarrott, K.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, A.

R. Zia, A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, A.

Silver, M.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, B. S.

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

Smit, M. K.

Smith, A. D.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.

Sugawara, Y.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

Sweatlock, L.

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, ““The new ‘p-n junction’: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tchebotareva, A. L.

E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, “Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Loon, R. V. A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, “Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vranic, A.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

Yu, N.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Zia, R.

R. Zia, A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, A. L. Tchebotareva, and A. Polman, “Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. A. Flynn, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, I. Vurgaftman, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons determined by emission from introduced surface discontinuities,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and auger recombination in 1.5- um multiple-quantum-well lasers,” J. Quant. Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, ““The new ‘p-n junction’: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Zia, A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

COMSOL, Inc., Burlington MA.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout and operation of the integrated plasmon source. (a) Side view (not to scale) of the end-coupling arrangement that converts photons (dashed arrows) emitted from the laser diode into surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) propagating on a Au-film waveguide. The waveguide is deposited on the chip substrate, which is etched below the laser’s active emitting quantum-wells by a distance h, chosen to best match the SPP exponential mode-profile (sketched) to the quasi-Gaussian laser mode (sketched as if not perturbed by the substrate). Also illustrated is the means for characterizing SPPs through their conversion to photons at an intentionally terminated guide and the resulting Lorentzian photon angular distribution. (b) Optical magnetic-field strength normal to the plane of the figure, as computed with the finite element code COMSOL with a two dimensional mesh. Laser coupling to radiation above and into the substrate is evident, as is the laser-induced launch of SPPs on the 100-nm thick Au waveguide. Scale bar 2 μm. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of a representative plasmon source showing the ridge laser with corrugated sidewalls, top contact, and plasmonic waveguide. Scale bar 10 μm. (d) Top-view infrared micrograph of a device operating at room temperature showing SPP-induced radiation at the right-hand end of the Au waveguide. The waveguide exhibits a slight curvature because it was cleaved from a larger pattern with a curved waveguide for future experiments. Scale bar 100 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization characteristics for below-threshold electroluminescence (EL). (a, b) Infrared micrographs of EL from the rear laser facet showing similar intensities for, respectively, TM and TE polarization. (c, d) Corresponding images of emission from the end of the Au waveguide, where EL-excited SPPs convert back to photons. The strong TM signal in (c) and absence of a TE signal in (d) (waveguide position marked by the arrow) confirms that the signal emanating from the waveguide corresponds to the creation of TM-polarized SPPs followed by conversion back to TM-polarized photons. (e) Quantitative comparison of the weakly-polarized EL from the laser (squares) and resultant highly TM polarized SPP-induced radiation (circles) from the plasmonic guide, as measured by rotating a polarization analyzer in the microscope, referenced to the guide’s surface normal. The curve is a cos2(ϕ) fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distributions of radiation emitted from the plasmonic source. (a) Theoretical distributions for the planar plasmonic waveguide (dashed) and the driving laser facet (solid). (b) Measured distributions from the guide (circles) and driving facet (squares). Curve through the circles shows a Lorentzian fit to the guide emission; curve through the squares is a guide to the eye. (c) Measured angular distribution from the rear cleaved laser facet, along with a Gaussian fit.

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