Abstract

We use a Monte Carlo model to investigate how the particulate oceanic composition affects the radiance, the linear polarization, and the circular polarization of underwater and backscattered light. The Mueller matrices used in our simulations were computed using the T-matrix method. They are significantly different for organic and inorganic particles. Our Monte Carlo simulations show that these differences have a significant impact on the underwater and backscattered light, and that it may be possible to determine the ratio between the amounts of organic and inorganic particles from measurements of the full Stokes vector.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

C. Q. Cornet, L. C. Labonnote, and F. Szczap, “Three-dimensional polarized Monte Carlo atmospheric radiative transfer model (3dmcpol): 3d effects on polarized visible reflectances of a cirrus cloud,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 174–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Sommersten, J. K. Lotsberg, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo simulations for polarized radiative transfer in a coupled system consisting of two media with different refractive indices,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 616–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, K. Stamnes, R. Spurr, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. ii. seawifs case study for the Santa Barbara channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 5689–5698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hestenes, K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in the coupled air-tissue system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2333–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Stamnes, W. Li, H. Eide, and J. J. Stamnes, “Challenges in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery data,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

2003 (3)

2001 (3)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multicomponent approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 400–412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Q. Chen, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Validity of the diffusion approximation in bio-optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6356–6366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current Fortran implementation of the tmatrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

. D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical-properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers 37, 245–266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

C. D. Mobley, “A numerical-model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural-waters with wind roughened surfaces,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1473–1483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light-field in an atmosphere ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix - effect of interface refractive-index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1984 (2)

K. J. Voss, and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, and K. J. Voss, “Mueller matrix measurements of ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 489, 127–129 (1984).

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar, and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light-field in an atmosphere ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix - effect of interface refractive-index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A.

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biryulina, M. S.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buras, R.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Castellana, F. S.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaikovskaya, L. I.

Charlton, F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. Q.

Cornet, C. Q.

C. Q. Cornet, L. C. Labonnote, and F. Szczap, “Three-dimensional polarized Monte Carlo atmospheric radiative transfer model (3dmcpol): 3d effects on polarized visible reflectances of a cirrus cloud,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 174–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. G.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DuRand, M. D.

Eide, H.

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, W. Li, H. Eide, and J. J. Stamnes, “Challenges in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery data,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. H. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emde, C.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

E. S. Fry, and K. J. Voss, “Mueller matrix measurements of ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 489, 127–129 (1984).

K. J. Voss, and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gentili, B.

Gjerstad, K. I.

Gordon, H. R.

Green, R. E.

Hamre, B.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, B. H. Yan, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2609–2622 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hestenes, K.

Hoogenboom, H. J.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Jin, Z. H.

Juzenas, P.

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

Katsev, I. L.

Kattawar, G. W.

Labonnote, L. C.

C. Q. Cornet, L. C. Labonnote, and F. Szczap, “Three-dimensional polarized Monte Carlo atmospheric radiative transfer model (3dmcpol): 3d effects on polarized visible reflectances of a cirrus cloud,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 174–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laman, S.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, K. Stamnes, R. Spurr, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. ii. seawifs case study for the Santa Barbara channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 5689–5698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, W. Li, H. Eide, and J. J. Stamnes, “Challenges in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery data,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. H. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotsberg, J. K.

E. R. Sommersten, J. K. Lotsberg, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo simulations for polarized radiative transfer in a coupled system consisting of two media with different refractive indices,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 616–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, B. H. Yan, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2609–2622 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current Fortran implementation of the tmatrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moan, J.

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

Mobley, C. D.

Morel, A.

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical-properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers 37, 245–266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Nielsen, K. P.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Hestenes, K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in the coupled air-tissue system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2333–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

Olson, R. J.

Pegau, W. S.

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. H. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Polonsky, I. N.

Prikhach, A. S.

Reinersman, P.

Ryzhikov, G. A.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sommersten, E. R.

E. R. Sommersten, J. K. Lotsberg, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo simulations for polarized radiative transfer in a coupled system consisting of two media with different refractive indices,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 616–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sosik, H. M.

Spurr, R.

W. Li, K. Stamnes, R. Spurr, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. ii. seawifs case study for the Santa Barbara channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 5689–5698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

E. R. Sommersten, J. K. Lotsberg, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo simulations for polarized radiative transfer in a coupled system consisting of two media with different refractive indices,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 616–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, K. Stamnes, R. Spurr, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. ii. seawifs case study for the Santa Barbara channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 5689–5698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hestenes, K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in the coupled air-tissue system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2333–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, W. Li, H. Eide, and J. J. Stamnes, “Challenges in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery data,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. H. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, B. H. Yan, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2609–2622 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Q. Chen, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Validity of the diffusion approximation in bio-optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6356–6366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

E. R. Sommersten, J. K. Lotsberg, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo simulations for polarized radiative transfer in a coupled system consisting of two media with different refractive indices,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 616–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, K. Stamnes, R. Spurr, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. ii. seawifs case study for the Santa Barbara channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 5689–5698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hestenes, K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in the coupled air-tissue system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2333–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, W. Li, H. Eide, and J. J. Stamnes, “Challenges in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery data,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. H. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, B. H. Yan, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2609–2622 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Q. Chen, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Validity of the diffusion approximation in bio-optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6356–6366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate method radiative-transfer in multiple-scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stavn, R. H.

Stramski, D.

. D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical-properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers 37, 245–266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, D. L.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Szczap, F.

C. Q. Cornet, L. C. Labonnote, and F. Szczap, “Three-dimensional polarized Monte Carlo atmospheric radiative transfer model (3dmcpol): 3d effects on polarized visible reflectances of a cirrus cloud,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 174–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current Fortran implementation of the tmatrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tynes, H. H.

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss, and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, and K. J. Voss, “Mueller matrix measurements of ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 489, 127–129 (1984).

Wiscombe, W.

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, B. H.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

Zhang, K.

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis (OTD) of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Technol. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Hestenes, K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in the coupled air-tissue system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2333–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (10)

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. H. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Q. Chen, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Validity of the diffusion approximation in bio-optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6356–6366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate method radiative-transfer in multiple-scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, and I. N. Polonsky, “Multicomponent approach to light-propagation in clouds and mists,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2803–2812 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, B. H. Yan, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2609–2622 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hestenes, K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in the coupled air-tissue system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2333–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multicomponent approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 400–412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, R. J. Olson, and M. D. DuRand, “Flow cytometric determination of size and complex refractive index for marine particles: comparison with independent and bulk estimates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 526–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss, and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers (1)

. D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical-properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers 37, 245–266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

W. Li, K. Stamnes, R. Spurr, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. ii. seawifs case study for the Santa Barbara channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 5689–5698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Oceans (1)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Plankton Res. (1)

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (4)

M. I. Mishchenko, and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current Fortran implementation of the tmatrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Sommersten, J. K. Lotsberg, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo simulations for polarized radiative transfer in a coupled system consisting of two media with different refractive indices,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 616–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. i. analytic jacobians from the linearized cao-disort model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 104, 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Cornet, L. C. Labonnote, and F. Szczap, “Three-dimensional polarized Monte Carlo atmospheric radiative transfer model (3dmcpol): 3d effects on polarized visible reflectances of a cirrus cloud,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111, 174–186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

C. D. Mobley, “A numerical-model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural-waters with wind roughened surfaces,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1473–1483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light-field in an atmosphere ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix - effect of interface refractive-index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Stamnes, W. Li, H. Eide, and J. J. Stamnes, “Challenges in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery data,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. B (2)

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 80, 450–455 (2004).

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mueller matrix elements for spheres compared to those for Rayleigh scattering.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mueller matrix elements for randomly oriented spheroidal particles with an asphericity of 2 compared to those for Rayleigh scattering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Radiance I (number of photons per solid angle divided by the number of photons incident at the top of the atmosphere), degree of linear polarization P=Q2+U2 , and degree of circular polarization Pc = V/I for downwelling light at the bottom of the ocean, computed by our CAO-PMC code, versus polar angle θ for azimuth angles ϕ of 0°, 90°, or 180°, as indicated by the color code. Unpolarized sunlight was incident at a polar angle θ of 120° and an azimuth angle of 0°. There was 5% Rayleigh scattering and 95% scattering either by organic particles (org) or inorganic particles (inorg). The total optical depth was τ = 1.15, of which τ atm = 0.15 and τ water = 1.00, and the wind speed was 0 m/s. The absorption was zero both in the atmosphere and the ocean.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as Fig. 3 except that the wind speed is 5 m/s.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Radiance I, degree of linear polarization P=Q2+U2 , and degree of circular polarization Pc = V/I for downwelling light at the bottom of the ocean, computed by our CAO-PMC code, versus polar angle θ for azimuth angles ϕ of 0°, 90°, or 180°, as indicated by the color code. Unpolarized sunlight was incident at a polar angle θ of 120° and an azimuth angle of 0°. There was 5% Rayleigh scattering and 95% scattering either by organic particles (org) or inorganic particles (inorg). The total optical depth was τ = 4.15, of which τ atm = 0.15 and τ water = 4.00, and the wind speed was 0 m/s. The absorption was zero in the atmosphere. The attenuation in the ocean was 75% due to scattering and 25% due to absorption.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The panels in the first row show radiances (the numbers on the colorbar to the right correspond to the exponent of 10 on the vertical axis in Figs. 3–5, e.g. 0.5 implies a radiance value of 100.5), those in the second row show degrees of linear polarization, and those in the third row show degrees of circular polarization for the case in which the water contains inorganic particles. The four columns pertain to different optical depths τ, as indicated by the column header. Below the ocean surface, in the third and the fourth columns, the critical angle is marked with a solid line. The column for τ = 0.15+ shows results immediately above the ocean surface, while the column for τ = 0.15- shows results immediately below the ocean surface.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The same as Fig. 6 exept that the particles are organic.

Equations (1)

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M=34(1ρ)(1+ρ/2)[1+ρ1ρ+cos2Θsin2Θ00sin2Θ1+cos2Θ00002cosΘ000024ρ1ρcosΘ]

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