Abstract

We experimentally study double and triple ionization of oxygen using a reaction microscope. The kinetic energy releases (KERs) and angular distributions are obtained through coincidentally measuring the ionic fragments of doubly or triply charged parent ions. The pathway O2+ 2 → O+ + O+ proceeds through some excited electronic states. The KERs exhibit definite structures independent of the laser intensity and the pulse duration. However, the angular distribution of coincident O+ reflects the symmetry of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) only for few-cycle laser pulses at low intensity. The pathways O2+ 2 → O2+ +O and O3+ 2 → O2+ + O+ occur through some repulsive states. The KERs show a single broad peak and decrease with increasing the pulse duration. The decrease of KER comes from the stretch of the internuclear distance in intense laser fields

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Yamanouchi, “The Next Frontier,” Science 295(5560), 1659–1660 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. X. Zhao, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment-dependent ionization probability of molecules in a double pulse laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. H. Posthumus, L. J. Frasinski, A. J. Giles, and K. Codling, “Dissociative ionization of molecules in intense laser fields: a method of predicting ion kinetic energies and appearance intensities,” J. Phys. B 28(10), L349–L353 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Talebpour, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29(18), L677–L680 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Sing and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58(6), R4271–R4274 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. J. DeWitt, E. Wells, and R. R. Jones, “Ratiometric comparison of intense field ionization of atoms and diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153001 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Guo, “Multielectron effects on single-electron strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2276–2279 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. Guo, M. Li, and G. N. Gibson, “Charge asymmetric dissociation induced by sequential and nonsequential strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2492–2495 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Cornaggia, and P. Hering, “Nonsequential double ionization of small molecules induced by a femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023403 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. Quaglia, M. Brewczyk, and C. Cornaggia, “Molecular reorientation in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 031404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Giles, M. R. Thompson, and K. Codling, “Field-ionization, Coulomb explosion of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields,” J. Phys. B 29(23), 5811–5829 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2009

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. X. Zhao, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment-dependent ionization probability of molecules in a double pulse laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Yamanouchi, “The Next Frontier,” Science 295(5560), 1659–1660 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Quaglia, M. Brewczyk, and C. Cornaggia, “Molecular reorientation in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 031404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. J. DeWitt, E. Wells, and R. R. Jones, “Ratiometric comparison of intense field ionization of atoms and diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

C. Guo, “Multielectron effects on single-electron strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2276–2279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cornaggia, and P. Hering, “Nonsequential double ionization of small molecules induced by a femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Guo, M. Li, and G. N. Gibson, “Charge asymmetric dissociation induced by sequential and nonsequential strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2492–2495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Sing and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58(6), R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Giles, M. R. Thompson, and K. Codling, “Field-ionization, Coulomb explosion of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields,” J. Phys. B 29(23), 5811–5829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29(18), L677–L680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Posthumus, L. J. Frasinski, A. J. Giles, and K. Codling, “Dissociative ionization of molecules in intense laser fields: a method of predicting ion kinetic energies and appearance intensities,” J. Phys. B 28(10), L349–L353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akagi, H.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltzer, P.

M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brewczyk, M.

L. Quaglia, M. Brewczyk, and C. Cornaggia, “Molecular reorientation in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 031404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnes, K. D.

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chambaret, J. P.

C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, C. Y.

A. Talebpour, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29(18), L677–L680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

A. Talebpour, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29(18), L677–L680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Giles, M. R. Thompson, and K. Codling, “Field-ionization, Coulomb explosion of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields,” J. Phys. B 29(23), 5811–5829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Posthumus, L. J. Frasinski, A. J. Giles, and K. Codling, “Dissociative ionization of molecules in intense laser fields: a method of predicting ion kinetic energies and appearance intensities,” J. Phys. B 28(10), L349–L353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornaggia, C.

L. Quaglia, M. Brewczyk, and C. Cornaggia, “Molecular reorientation in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 031404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Cornaggia, and P. Hering, “Nonsequential double ionization of small molecules induced by a femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeWitt, M. J.

M. J. DeWitt, E. Wells, and R. R. Jones, “Ratiometric comparison of intense field ionization of atoms and diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dooley, P. W.

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreischuh, A.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edvardsson, D.

M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eremina, E.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faisal, F. H. M.

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, J. P.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frasinski, L. J.

J. H. Posthumus, L. J. Frasinski, A. J. Giles, and K. Codling, “Dissociative ionization of molecules in intense laser fields: a method of predicting ion kinetic energies and appearance intensities,” J. Phys. B 28(10), L349–L353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaire, B.

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. N.

C. Guo, M. Li, and G. N. Gibson, “Charge asymmetric dissociation induced by sequential and nonsequential strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2492–2495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Sing and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58(6), R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giles, A. J.

J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Giles, M. R. Thompson, and K. Codling, “Field-ionization, Coulomb explosion of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields,” J. Phys. B 29(23), 5811–5829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Posthumus, L. J. Frasinski, A. J. Giles, and K. Codling, “Dissociative ionization of molecules in intense laser fields: a method of predicting ion kinetic energies and appearance intensities,” J. Phys. B 28(10), L349–L353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gühr, M.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

C. Guo, “Multielectron effects on single-electron strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2276–2279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Guo, M. Li, and G. N. Gibson, “Charge asymmetric dissociation induced by sequential and nonsequential strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2492–2495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Sing and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58(6), R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hering, P.

C. Cornaggia, and P. Hering, “Nonsequential double ionization of small molecules induced by a femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. G.

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

M. J. DeWitt, E. Wells, and R. R. Jones, “Ratiometric comparison of intense field ionization of atoms and diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsson, M.

M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lavancier, J.

D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

C. Guo, M. Li, and G. N. Gibson, “Charge asymmetric dissociation induced by sequential and nonsequential strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2492–2495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Sing and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58(6), R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Q.

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. D.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. X. Zhao, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment-dependent ionization probability of molecules in a double pulse laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
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D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
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Liu, M.

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
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Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
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Liu, X.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
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M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
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C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
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S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
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Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
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A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
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A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
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Mairesse, Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
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B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
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B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
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M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
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Morellec, J.

D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
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C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
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Moshammer, R.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
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Muth-Böhm, J.

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
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C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Sing and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58(6), R4271–R4274 (1998).
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Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
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D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
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C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
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A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
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Otobe, T.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parke, E.

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
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Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
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Paulus, G. G.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
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G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
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M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
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Pépin, H.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posthumus, J. H.

J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Giles, M. R. Thompson, and K. Codling, “Field-ionization, Coulomb explosion of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields,” J. Phys. B 29(23), 5811–5829 (1996).
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J. H. Posthumus, L. J. Frasinski, A. J. Giles, and K. Codling, “Dissociative ionization of molecules in intense laser fields: a method of predicting ion kinetic energies and appearance intensities,” J. Phys. B 28(10), L349–L353 (1995).
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Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
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Quaglia, L.

L. Quaglia, M. Brewczyk, and C. Cornaggia, “Molecular reorientation in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 031404 (2002).
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Quéré, F.

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranitovic, P.

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottke, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayler, A. M.

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schätzel, M. G.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
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Seideman, T.

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
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Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiner, A.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29(18), L677–L680 (1996).
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Thompson, M. R.

J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Giles, M. R. Thompson, and K. Codling, “Field-ionization, Coulomb explosion of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields,” J. Phys. B 29(23), 5811–5829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Zhao, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment-dependent ionization probability of molecules in a double pulse laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.-M.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, F.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wannberg, B.

M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wells, E.

M. J. DeWitt, E. Wells, and R. R. Jones, “Ratiometric comparison of intense field ionization of atoms and diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamanouchi, K.

K. Yamanouchi, “The Next Frontier,” Science 295(5560), 1659–1660 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zamkov, M.

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Zhao, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment-dependent ionization probability of molecules in a double pulse laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, T.

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

Z. Wu, C. Wu, Q. Liang, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Fragmentation dynamics of methane by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(7), 074311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B

M. Lundqvist, D. Edvardsson, P. Baltzer, M. Larsson, and B. Wannberg, “Observation of predissociation and tunneling processes in O2 2+: a study using Doppler free kinetic energy release spectroscopy and ab initio CI configurations,” J. Phys. B 29(3), 499–514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Giles, M. R. Thompson, and K. Codling, “Field-ionization, Coulomb explosion of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields,” J. Phys. B 29(23), 5811–5829 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, J. Huang, N. Xu, R. Ma, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Dynamic alignment of O2 investigated by using two linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 39(5), 1035–1043 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, C. L. Cocke, and C. D. Lin, “Post ionization alignment of the fragmentation of molecules in an ultrashort intense laser field,” J. Phys. B 38(4), 333–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Voss, A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, C. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “High resolution kinetic energy release spectra and angular distributions from double ionization of nitrogen and oxygen by short laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37(21), 4239–4257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, “The effects of dissociative recombination in multiphoton ionization of O2,” J. Phys. B 29(18), L677–L680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Posthumus, L. J. Frasinski, A. J. Giles, and K. Codling, “Dissociative ionization of molecules in intense laser fields: a method of predicting ion kinetic energies and appearance intensities,” J. Phys. B 28(10), L349–L353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

J. Huang, C. Wu, N. Xu, Q. Liang, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-induced alignment of oxygen and nitrogen by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(34), 10179–10184 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Zhao, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment-dependent ionization probability of molecules in a double pulse laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liang, C. Wu, Z. Wu, M. Liu, Y. Deng, and Q. Gong, “Field-assisted bond stretching of CO in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 045401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Gaire, J. McKenna, N. G. Johnson, A. M. Sayler, E. Parke, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, “Laser-induced multiple ionization of molecular ion beams: N2 +, CO+, NO+, and O2 +,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alnaser, M. Zamkov, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Resonant excitation during strong-field dissociative ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041402 (2005).
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C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Sing and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58(6), R4271–R4274 (1998).
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D. Normand, C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, J. Morellec, and H. X. Liu, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of O2 in an intense picosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(1), 475–482 (1991).
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C. Cornaggia, J. Lavancier, D. Normand, J. Morellec, P. Agostini, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Multielectron dissociative ionization of diatomic molecules in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 44(7), 4499–4505 (1991).
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C. Cornaggia, and P. Hering, “Nonsequential double ionization of small molecules induced by a femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(2), 023403 (2000).
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L. Quaglia, M. Brewczyk, and C. Cornaggia, “Molecular reorientation in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 031404 (2002).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Guo, M. Li, and G. N. Gibson, “Charge asymmetric dissociation induced by sequential and nonsequential strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2492–2495 (1999).
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M. J. DeWitt, E. Wells, and R. R. Jones, “Ratiometric comparison of intense field ionization of atoms and diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153001 (2001).
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C. Guo, “Multielectron effects on single-electron strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2276–2279 (2000).
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J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
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E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, F. Quéré, A. D. Bandrauk, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved double ionization with few cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(9), 093002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, “Routes to control of H2 Coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 183202 (2004).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
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D. Pavi?i?, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X.-M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

K. Yamanouchi, “The Next Frontier,” Science 295(5560), 1659–1660 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavi?i?, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser tunnel ionization from multiple orbitals in HCl,” Science 325(5946), 1364–1367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The KER of O2+ 2 → O+ + O+ induced by linearly polarized (LP) laser pulses with different intensities and pulse durations. (I0: 1014 W/cm2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Angular distributions of coincident O+ with KER between 6 and 7eV (peak a in Fig. 1). The pulse durations and peak intensities of the laser pulses are (a): 24fs, 2I0; (b) 8fs, 2.5I0; and (c) 8fs, 10I0. (I0: 1014 W/cm2).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular distributions of coincident O+ induced by 8fs laser pulses with an intensity of 2.5 × 1014 W/cm2. The KERs of coincident O+ are shown by (a) peak a in Fig. 1, (b) peak b in Fig. 1, and (c) peak c in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The KER of different fragmentation channels of oxygen induced by 8fs laser pulses with different intensities and polarizations. (LP: linearly polarized, CP: circularly polarized, I0: 1014 W/cm2).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The KER of different fragmentation channels of oxygen induced by 24fs laser pulses with different intensities and polarizations. (LP: linearly polarized, CP: circularly polarized, I0: 1014 W/cm2).

Equations (2)

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vMF1=v1v=12(v1v2)
vMF2=v2v=12 (v2v1)

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