Abstract

Two optical antenna designs incorporating structures termed charge and current reservoirs are proposed to realize localized high electric and magnetic field enhancement, respectively. Simulation results show that the fan-rod electric antenna design combines the advantages of the rod antenna and the bowtie antenna, and has higher field enhancement than either. The performance of a loop shaped magnetic antenna consisting of a pair of metallic strips with offsets is also verified numerically, with high magnetic field enhancement being observed in the simulation. In both of the designs, the concepts of charge and current reservoirs contribute to high electric and magnetic field enhancement.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, and S. Zhuo, “Negative refractive indices of a confined discrete fishnet metamaterial at visible wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, S. Zhuo, and J. Li, “Negative refraction with high transmission at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Multipole plasmon resonances in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(5), 2150–2154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, “Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S122–S130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Radiation transfer through nanoscale apertures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 93(1-3), 163–173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Corzine, S.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, S. Zhuo, and J. Li, “Negative refraction with high transmission at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, and S. Zhuo, “Negative refractive indices of a confined discrete fishnet metamaterial at visible wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djurisic, A. B.

Drachev, V. P.

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elazar, J. M.

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höfler, G.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huangfu, J.

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Radiation transfer through nanoscale apertures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 93(1-3), 163–173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, B.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, S. Zhuo, and J. Li, “Negative refraction with high transmission at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Majewski, M. L.

Mallouk, T.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Multipole plasmon resonances in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(5), 2150–2154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mu, M.

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Multipole plasmon resonances in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(5), 2150–2154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, E. K.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Multipole plasmon resonances in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(5), 2150–2154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rakic, A. D.

Ran, L.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schatz, G. C.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Multipole plasmon resonances in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(5), 2150–2154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shuford, K. L.

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Multipole plasmon resonances in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(5), 2150–2154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, “Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S122–S130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, “Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S122–S130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, S. Zhuo, and J. Li, “Negative refraction with high transmission at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, and S. Zhuo, “Negative refractive indices of a confined discrete fishnet metamaterial at visible wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Radiation transfer through nanoscale apertures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 93(1-3), 163–173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, and S. Zhuo, “Negative refractive indices of a confined discrete fishnet metamaterial at visible wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, S. Zhuo, and J. Li, “Negative refraction with high transmission at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Zhuo, S.

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, and S. Zhuo, “Negative refractive indices of a confined discrete fishnet metamaterial at visible wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, S. Zhuo, and J. Li, “Negative refraction with high transmission at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. Wang, L. Ran, H. Chen, M. Mu, J. A. Kong, and B. I. Wu, “Experimental validation of negative refraction of metamaterial composed of single side paired S-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 254103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. Wang, S. Zhuo, and J. Li, “Negative refraction with high transmission at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, “Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S122–S130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

E. K. Payne, K. L. Shuford, S. Park, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Multipole plasmon resonances in gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(5), 2150–2154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Radiation transfer through nanoscale apertures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 93(1-3), 163–173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Fan-rod electric antenna design. (b) Rod antenna. (c) Bowtie antenna. For all of these antennas, the thickness in the z direction is 40 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Unit cell of loop shaped magnetic antenna with offsets. (b) Unit cell of loop shaped magnetic antenna with slits. (c) Unit cell of loop shaped magnetic antenna without offsets. Blue parts represent free space, and are shown to aid visualization of the structures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized electric field intensity (E2 ) for fan-rod antenna, rod antenna and bowtie antenna. (b) Normalized electric field intensity (E2 ) profiles along antenna axes for fan-rod, rod and bowtie antennas at a wavelength of λ = 1 μm. (c) Normalized electric field intensity (E2 ) distribution on a plane 2nm above the top surface of the fan-rod antenna. White curves show the fan-rod antenna outline.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Current loop for the unit cell of loop shaped antenna with offsets. (b) Equivalent circuit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized magnetic field intensities (H2 ) for loop shaped magnetic antenna with offsets, loop shaped magnetic antenna without offsets and loop shaped magnetic antenna with slits. (b) Distribution of normalized magnetic field intensity (H2 ) at a wavelength of λ = 1 μm for the loop shaped magnetic antenna with offsets. The dark parts are metallic strips.

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